Trierer Personality Inventory. Primary data from the standardization sample.

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Becker, Peter


Dataset Information

Title Trierer Personality Inventory. Primary data from the standardization sample.
Original Title Trierer Persönlichkeitsfragebogen (TPF). Primärdaten der Eichstichprobe.
Citation Becker, P. (2004). Trierer Personality Inventory. Primary data from the standardization sample. [Translated Title] (Version 1.0.0) [Data and Documentation]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology ZPID.
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Becker, Peter
Data Collection Completion Date 1988
Dataset Publication 2004
Dataset ID brpr88pe99
Study Description The Trier Personality Questionnaire (TPF) is based on a systematic review and further development of theories and diagnostic tools for mental health (Becker, 1997a, Becker & Minsel, 1986), as well as factor-analytical studies concerning the strongest variables and independent factors of personality (Becker, 1988, 1995, 1998, 2000). The TPF is anchored in a (system-) theory and a circumplex model of personality which consists of the two main constructs of mental health and behavioral control. The theory was developed by Becker (1995, 1996, 1999a) and applied in clinical contexts. Mental health is conceived by Becker as "the capacity to manage external and internal psychological demands."
The TPF was administered to a random sample of 961 adults thus generating norm data. Norm tables are available for both sexes separately in the age ranges 18-40 years and 41-80 years.
The data from the norm sample are stored in the PsychData psychological data archive.
Hypotheses -
Keyphrase P. Becker's theory of mental health, test construction & test standardization, 120-item questionnaire named "Trierer Persönlichkeitsfragebogen" (Trier Personality Inventory) & sociodemographic variables, 961 adults aged 18-80 years, primary data
Funding German Research Foundation
Rating The test manual provided extensive examination of the quality criteria based on the present as well as other samples. For the present sample, an internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of .77-.91 was determined (average of .80) for the 9 scales. In addition to this, factor analysis results for this sample proved the validity of the procedure.
File Access Criteria

Data files and additional material that belong to access category 1indication of an academic email account and the intended use


PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Tests & Testing
Personality Scales & Inventories
Health Psychology Testing
Personality Psychology
Controlled Terms Personality Measures
Mental Health
Data Collection


Research Method Description

Research Method Description Test Data
Classification of Data Collection Normalized Test Procedure
Research Instrument The Trier Personality Questionnaire (TPI) was theoretically developed. More than 300 items were generated based on assumptions about core areas of mental health, 7 indicators of mental health, and behavioral control, the so-called "superfactor". Using these as well as factor analysis and classic test theory methods (discriminative power, examination of the internal consistency and distribution characteristics, etc.), 120 items for the final version of the TPI were created. The TPI includes 9 scales for the following constructs:
Superfactors: (1) behavioral control and (2) mental health.
Psycho-physical well-being: (3)meaningfulness vs depressiveness, (4) self-forgetfulness vs self-centering, and (5) symptom free vs nervousness.
Self-actualization: (6) expansiveness and (7) autonomy.
Peer- and self-esteem: (8) self-esteem and (9) ability to love.
An example item reads: "I look with confidence toward the future." The subject can choose between the response categories "always", "often", "sometimes", and "never". The test manual provides detailed information. The TPI was translated into other languages (including English, French, Hebrew, Spanish, Greek, and Chinese versions). There is a computerized version (Hogrefe Test System).
Data Collection Method Data collection in the presence of an experimenter
- Individual Administration
- Paper and Pencil
Data collection in the absence of an experimenter
- Mail Survey
Time Points single measurement
Survey Time Period 1988
Characteristics -
Population Adults German citizens aged 18-80 years
Experimental Pool Individuals
Sample Stratified, systematic sample
Subject Recruitment The selected persons (other than a subsample of 80 panelists who were visited in their homes) were contacted by mail and asked to volunteer to complete the TPI. In some cases 5 DM were offered as compensation. Potential subjects were provided with a postage-free postcard with which they could indicate their willingness to participate. Willing subjects then received the TPI, a postage-paid return envelope, and another postcard by which they could inform the experimenter that they had completed the TPI and returned it using the anonymous envelop. This complex process ensured the complete anonymity of the participant.
Sample Size 961 individuals
Return/Drop Out The response rate of the complete postal data collection was 18%. Of the 80 randomly selected subjects visited at home, there was a significantly higher participation rate of 51%. Datasets with more than 10 missing values were excluded.
Gender Distribution 58,1% female subjects (n=525)
41,9% male subjects (n=436)
Age Distribution 18-80 years
Special Groups -
Country Germany
Region Former West German States
City -
Variables Number of subjects
demographic variables (gender, age, education, marital status, number of people in home, occupation),
The Trier Personality Inventory (with the scales behavior control, mental health, meaningfulness vs depressiveness, allocentricity vs self-centeredness, nervousness vs no nervousness, expansivity, autonomy, self-esteem, ability to love)


Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Questionnaire filled out by either the subject or the experimenter containing closed and/or open answers
Transformation A data matrix was created by transferring the information from the questionnaire into numerical values following simple encoding guidelines. The data underwent a consistency check. Missing values were replaced by rounded, gender-specific averages. This data matrix (brpr88pe99_pd.txt) is available along with the associated codebook (brpr88pe99_kb.txt). Broader aggregations were obtained from the data matrix: 63 items of the TPI were inverted, the items for the 9 subscales of the TPI were combined, and the subjects were assigned to 8 different groups based on their age. The transformation instructions (brpr88pe99_aa.txt) as well as the matrix derived data (brpr88pe99_ad.txt) are available.


Description of the Provided Data

Description Primary study data
File Name brpr88pe99_pd.txt
Data Content 961 subjects, 128 variables
Data Points 961*128=123008 data points
Variables subject ID (1), TPI items (120), demographic variables (7)
MD5 Hash 054ca6702007be958cd6abcfb9c8f48a
File Access Criteria access category 1indication of an academic email account and the intended use
Description Study's primary and aggregate data
File Name brpr88pe99_ad.txt
Data Content 961 subjects, 201 variables
Data Points 961*201=193161 data points
Variables Subject ID (1), TPI items (120), demographic variables (7), inverted TPI items (63), TPI scales (9)
MD5 Hash 878591ea922d89e10baf44bf9af5b755
File Access Criteria access category 1indication of an academic email account and the intended use


Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
German codebook of primary data file brpr88pe99_pd.txt brpr88pe99_kb.txt
Transformation instructions for the primary dataset brpr88pe99_pd.txt brpr88pe99_aa.txt


Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Becker, P. (1989). Der Trierer Persönlichkeitsfragebogen TPF. Handanweisung. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9001475


Utilized Test Methods

Utilized Test Methods
Becker, P. (1989). Der Trierer Persönlichkeitsfragebogen TPF. Handanweisung. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9001475


Further Reading

Further Reading
Becker, P. & Minsel, B. (1986). Psychologie der seelischen Gesundheit. Bd. 2 Persönlichkeitspsychologische Grundlagen, Bedingungsanalysen und Förderungsmöglichkeiten. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0017281
Becker, P. (1988). Seelische Gesundheit und Verhaltenskontrolle: Zwei replizierbare, varianzstarke Persönlichkeitsfaktoren. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 9, 13-38.Datensatz 0030520
Becker, P. (1995). Seelische Gesundheit und Verhaltenskontrolle. Eine integrative Persönlichkeitstheorie und ihre klinische Anwendung. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0092935
Becker, P. (1996). Persönlichkeit. In A. Ehlers & K. Hahlweg (Hrsg.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Themenbereich D Praxisgebiete, Serie II Klinische Psychologie, Bd. 1 Grundlagen der Klinischen Psychologie (S. 465-534). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0108030
Becker, P. (1997a). Psychologie der seelischen Gesundheit. Bd. 1 Theorien, Modelle, Diagnostik (2. Aufl.). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
Becker, P. (1998). A multifacet circumplex model of personality as a basis for the description and therapy of personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12, 213-225.Datensatz 0124464
Becker, P. (1999a). Allgemeine und differentielle Psychotherapie auf systemischer Grundlage. In R. F. Wagner & P. Becker (Hrsg.), Allgemeine Psychotherapie. Neue Ansätze zu einer Integration psychotherapeutischer Schulen (S. 169-226). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0131296
Becker, P. (1999b). Beyond the Big Five. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 511-530.Datensatz 0127372
Becker, P. (2000). Die "Big Two" Seelische Gesundheit und Verhaltenskontrolle: zwei orthogonale Superfaktoren höherer Ordnung? Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 21, 113-124.Datensatz 0138403
Becker, P., (1997b). Trierer Persönlichkeitsfragebogen (TPF). In R. Brickenkamp (Hrsg.), Handbuch psychologischer und pädagogischer Tests (2., vollständig überarbeitete und erweiterte Aufl.) (S. 603-607). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0106228
Borkenau, P. (1992). Der Trierer Persönlichkeitsfragebogen (TPF). Diagnostica, 38, 176-183.
Ellis, B. B., Becker, P. & Kimmel, H. D. (1991). Measurement equivalence of an English translation of the Trierer Persoenlichkeitsfragebogen. In N. Bleichrodt & P. J. D. Drenth (Eds.), Contemporary issues in cross cultural psychology (pp. 391-399). Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.


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