Freiburg Personality Inventory FPI-R. Primary data from the standardization sample 1982.

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Fahrenberg, Jochen
Hampel, Rainer
Selg, Herbert


Dataset Information

Title Freiburg Personality Inventory FPI-R. Primary data from the standardization sample 1982.
Original Title Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar FPI-R. Primärdaten der Normierungsstichprobe 1982.
Citation Fahrenberg, J., Hampel, R., & Selg, H. (2010). Freiburg Personality Inventory FPI-R. Primary data from the standardization sample 1982. [Translated Title] (Version 1) [Data and Documentation]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID.
Language of variable documentation German/English
Responsible for Data Collection Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach (IfD)
Data Collection Completion Date 1982
Dataset Publication 2010
Dataset ID fgjn82fr19
Study Description The Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI) was developed and standardized in response to a representative survey conducted in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany, 2,035 participants). Prior to this, a precursor of the FPI dating back to the 1960s had been constructed and analyzed using a broad, smaller albeit not representative dataset (630 participants) and several comparison groups. Therefore, on the occasion of the fourth edition of the FPI in 1982, a representative survey for standardization was conducted. This survey was also meant to be used to assist in new scale development.
The selection of personality traits for the construction of the FPI has its theoretical foundation in the authors' research areas. In the development of the FPI, item analysis, cluster analysis, and factor analysis were used. However, these were only tools to improve the precision of the theoretical constructs and scale designs. The scale of the original version of the FPI (1st edition, 1970) was further improved and additional scales were added. The scale conception, the representative survey, and the "multistrategic" test construction are described in detail in the test manual (4th edition, 1984), and are again discussed in depth in the 8th edition (2010).
The test questionnaire used for the revision contained 240 items (138 of which were retained), 6 "metaquestions" to assist the understandability of the items and their aspects, and 25 attitude statements concerning social and political issues and questions about occupational stress and health. The survey, conducted by the Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach (IfD - Institute for Public Opinion Research) revealed, above and beyond the questionnaire itself, several sociodemographic characteristics whose distributions were identified. These results were able to provide numerous validation indicators and to illustrate their relationship to the personality scales.
The revised FPI-R is a personality inventory for adolescents and adults (aged 16 years to old age). It can generally be used for assessment of personality traits and in clinical diagnostics. Through the 138 items of this questionnaire 12 personality characteristics are recorded: life satisfaction, social orientation, performance orientation, shyness, irritability, aggression, stress, physical complaints, health concerns, openness, as well as 2 secondary factors (following Eysenck) extraversion and emotionality (neuroticism). The new version is called the FPI-R, in contrast to the previous form, FPI-G.
In 1999, a representative survey was again conducted to verify the design of the FPI-R scales and extend the standardization of the tests to the residents of the new federal states of Germany (former East Germany). The structure of the FPI-R along with test methodological statistics, reliability coefficients, and even the norm values (for the population of West Germany) proved very reproducible with this population. The primary data are archived under the identification code fgjn99fr19.
Three areas of the FPI have continued to be differentiated by scale structures and the standardization of the representative population: the Fragebogen für Erfassung von Aggressivitätsfaktoren (FAF; a measure of aggressiveness factors, Hampel & Selg, 1975), the Freiburg Beschwerdenliste FBL-R (FBL-R; the Freiburg complaints list, revised, Fahrenberg, 1994) and the Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit (FLZ, life satisfaction questionnaire, Fahrenberg Myrtek, Schumacher, & Brähler, 2000). The FAF, the FBL-R, and the FLZ are relatively broad in scope, address many facets and components of their constructs, and were constructed and standardized using representative survey populations. The primary data of the FBL-R are archived under the identification code fgjn93fr19.
Hypotheses It was not the intention to examine particular hypotheses. However, it was expected that the expanded item pool could successfully reproduce the existing scales and also be used to create additional scales for the new characteristic constructs. The aim was to apply new scales covering the constructs of life satisfaction and self-realization, social orientation (helpfulness, prosocial attitudes, altruism), performance orientation, demands, experience of demands and stress, and health concerns.
Keyphrase test construction & test standardization of "Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar" (FPI), questionnaire for assessment of personality traits, representative sample of 2035 West Germans aged 16 years and older, primary data
Funding -
Rating The test manual presents important, well-recognized socio-economic status features and other characteristics of the normative sample along with the rating procedure for the rated characteristics and the expected values of other, nonrated attributes. The Allensbach Institute for Public Opinion Research (IfD) statistics are drawn from the population of the Federal Republic of Germany aged 16 years or older. There are updated figures or estimates, based on the official data of the 1980 Statistical Yearbook, though these are not directly reflected therein as the tables are either representative of the resident population (including foreigners), contain different age groups, or are incomplete. The conformity between target values and actual values of the rated characteristics is very satisfactory. In summary, it can be said that the sample is a representative reflection of the respondents surveyed and is a representative selection of the population of the German Federal Republic (West Germany and West Berlin) aged 16 years or older. Concerning 2,024 subjects of the standard sample (N = 2,035), largely complete status characteristics from the IfD interview exist; they were left in the order in which they were presented. The data from the FPI questionnaire and the IfD data, however, do not match concerning Gender (7 cases) and Age (11 IfD cases missing), aspects which are important for the normalization of personal characteristics. Also, with regard to education, employment, and professional occupation, individual differences were found. Generally, in the statistical analysis and for the normalization of the FPI survey values listed on the FPI questionnaire, statuses of gender and age were used. As a result, the context of the item selection is changed. It is assumed that, though a complete local stochastic independence is lacking, the context effects are minimal. The items in the final test form were, therefore, arranged so that similar items do not follow directly after each other.


PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Personality Scales & Inventories
Personality Traits & Processes
Controlled Terms Classical Test Theory
Personality Measures
Test Standardization
Test Construction
Personality Traits
Depression (Emotion)
Data Collection


Research Method Description

Research Method Description Test Data
Classification of Data Collection Normalized Test Procedure
Research Instrument The theoretical basis:
The FPI is the result of the authors' theoretical interests in certain personality traits. The theoretical approach to forming constructs was grounded in the personality theory, and this personality inventory served as a medium-spectrum description system for various differential-psychological assessment tasks.
Multistrategic concept of the FPI:
The test structure is hypothetical-deductive, examining a full range of personality traits for specific research and clinical areas and is empirically inductive concerning factor analyses and cluster analyses. The item and factor analytical parameters were evaluated as heuristic information, being expressly subordinate to the psychological operationalizations of the construct. The authors' theoretical intentions determined the themes of the item pool and also influenced the scale construction. However, the extent of the psychological constructs/scales is driven by the factor- and cluster-analytic reduction of that which the average lay person supplies in terms of a psychological description of self-description/self-assessment. The scales represent psychological constructs that are both obvious and strong influencing factors of an average participant's self-description. The entire data set (2,035) was used for the construction of the FPI. The analyses were performed with the corresponding programs from the SAS (SAS Institute Inc.) and SPSS, factor analysis with MAXVAR (principal components-method and varimax-rotation), cluster analysis by Ward with HGROUP as well as CLUSTAN 1 C (Euclidean measure of distance). Generally, no missing data were replaced, but analysis were conducted with a reduced number of people (pair-wise exclusion). Variations between results may be due to differences in the methods, of the various algorithms (PROC-statements in SAS and SPSS), and by differences in the missing-data treatment.
Results of the design:
The combination of factor analysis, item analysis on the preserved scale designs, and cluster analyses led to a statistically- and psychologically-substantive interpretation process for the design of the 10 FPI-R-S standard scales as well as separate, reconstructed scales of extraversion and emotionality (as interpreted by Eysenck). The reliability of the FPI-R scale was found to be internally consistent. The consistency coefficients (Cronbach's alpha) range from 0.71-0.84. These coefficients were considered satisfying for the 12- and 14-item scales. Though higher coefficients would indicate a greater homogeneity (in the sense of lower measurement errors), they might also indicate a redundancy of item content.
As to the empirical validity of the FPI-R test scores, the test manual presents the numerous relationships between the information pertaining to occupational and health hazards as well as to the socio-demographic characteristics. Furthermore, mean differences between patient groups and other comparison groups were presented. Generally speaking, the test values of the FPI-R record can be, for general use, considered sufficient to capture individual characteristics of personality traits despite the relatively small number of items.
Structure of the questionnaire:
Using 138 items, 12 personality traits were measured: life satisfaction, social orientation, performance orientation, inhibition, irritability, aggression, stress, physical discomfort, health concerns, and openness as well as the 2 secondary factors of extraversion and emotionality (neuroticism). Items were presented as declarative true/false sentences. Due to factor and item analysis of the 25 items measuring attitudes toward social and political issues, a scale called "conservative-progressive tendency" was formed along with 4 other subscales: attitudes toward authority, pessimism concerning the future, alternative attitudes, and radical attitudes. The statistical analyses were described elsewhere (see Hampel & Fahrenberg, 1983). The initial steps of the test development are described in earlier editions of the test manuals. The revision of the personality questionnaire in 1984 is described in detail in the test manual, with additional table material presented in a research report (Hampel & Fahrenberg 1983, see also Fahrenberg, Hampel, and Selg 2010).
Data Collection Method Data collection in the presence of an experimenter
- Individual Administration
- Paper and Pencil
Time Points single measurement
Survey Time Period -
Characteristics -
Population Population of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany, including West Berlin) aged 16 years and older.
Experimental Pool Individuals
Sample Quota Sample
Subject Recruitment The survey was done following selection process based on the IfD-estimated German population of 46.8 million people aged 16 years or older in West Germany and West Berlin (21.6 million men and 25.2 million women). Each of the approximately 510 interviewers received instructions that dictated how many people were to be consulted and how participants were to be selected. The interviewers allocated to the 11 states (26 regions) according to the official population statistical data. Within these regions, the interviewers were divided up among the 6 community-size categories which were structured according to gender, 7 age groups, and the workers, both employed and unemployed, spanning 5 occupational groups.
Sample Size 2035 Individuals
Return/Drop Out A total of 2,608 subjects were additionally asked to fill out the FPI. According to the Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach (IfD), 59% completed the questionnaire on the spot, 36% were given the questionnaire to be "collected in the coming days", and 5% remained unspecified. Of the 2,181 questionnaires (84%) that were returned, 146 questionnaires were deemed unsuitable and eliminated, leaving a remainder of 2,035 (78%) for evaluation. Reasons for elimination were either a lack of complete information (more than 10 missing data, or 4% of the 240 items), not clearly identifiable questionnaire numbers, or a negative answer to item 1 which asked for the willingness of each participant to take part in the FPI. However, 68 questionnaires in which item 1 had remained unanswered were not eliminated after an inspection revealed that this group, which fell into the average of the FPI scale openness, did not differ from a parallel group with whom they matched for gender, age, and education level. (t = 0.46 , p = 0.65).
Gender Distribution 53,2% female subjects (n=1082)
46,8% male subjects (n=953)
Age Distribution 16 years or older
Special Groups -
Country Germany
Region -
City -
Variables socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, education level, hometown population, occupation, profession) FPI Items
assessment of the questionnaire (how long it took, answerability and comprehensibility of questions, applicability of questions to interviewees, intrusiveness of the questions, suitability of the questionnaire to provide a better understanding of people) opinions on social and political Issues
occupational stressors
smoking/drinking habits
body height/weight
excess weight
number of hospitalizations /operations /rehabilitations/doctor visits
chronic diseases
medication intake
socio-demographic information of the IfD, including income, number of persons in the household, number of children by age group, marital status, state, type of city/community, hometown population
IfD section concerning personal activities (denomination, church attendance, union membership, political party preference)
subjective assessment of the actual interview in terms of length and interestingness, whether the questionnaire was filled out in the presence of an interviewer, survey wave
interviewer classification of IfD (social status of the respondents)


Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Questionnaire filled out by either the subject or the experimenter containing closed and/or open answers
Transformation Data from the subjects were coded and then immediately transferred into a machine-readable form


Description of the Provided Data

Description Primary data set
File Name fgjn82fr19_pd.txt
Data Content 2035 subjects, 231 variables
Data Points 2035*231= 470085 data points
Variables sociodemographic variables (6), FPI Items (138) evaluation of the questionnaire (6), opinion on social issues and political topics (25), occupational stressors (3), satisfaction (5), health (1), smoking/drinking habits (8), height (1), body weight (1), excess weight (1), hospitalization (1), operations (1), physical rehabilitation treatments (1), doctor visits (1), chronic diseases (1), psychotherapy (1), medication intake (3), socio-demographic details of the IFD (19), information concerning the interview (interestingness, duration, presence/no presence of the interviewer) (IfD) (3), interviewer classification of respondents (security, social class) (IfD) (2), union membership (IfD) (1), political party preference (IfD) (1), subject ID (1)
MD5 Hash f7a7aca2842ac50fcca3ffa751fe6024
Description Primary data set including derived variables
File Name fgjn82fr19_ad.txt
Data Content 2035 subjects, 243 variables
Data Points 2035*243= 494505 data points
Variables sociodemographic variables (6), FPI Items (138) evaluation of the questionnaire (6), opinion on social issues and political topics (25), occupational stressors (3), satisfaction (5), health (1), smoking/drinking habits (8), height (1), body weight (1), excess weight (1), hospitalization (1), operations (1), physical rehabilitation treatments (1), doctor visits (1), chronic diseases (1), psychotherapy (1), medication intake (3), socio-demographic details of the IFD (19), information concerning the interview (interestingness, duration, presence/no presence of the interviewer) (IfD) (3), interviewer classification of respondents (security, social class) (IfD) (2), union membership (IfD) (1), political party preference (IfD) (1), subject ID (1), FPI scales (12)
MD5 Hash 19160c1ebd5b29b2263b65e18557e754


Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
German codebook of primary dataset fgjn82fr19_pd.txt fgjn82fr19_kb.txt
German codebook of primary dataset with derived variables fgjn82fr19_pd.txt fgjn82fr19_aa.txt


Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Fahrenberg, J. & Selg, H. (1970). Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar FPI. Handanweisung 1. Auflage. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
Fahrenberg, J., Hampel, R. & Selg, H. (1985). Die revidierte Form des Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventars FPI-R. Diagnostica, 31, 1-21. Datensatz 0008231
Fahrenberg, J., Hampel, R. & Selg, H. (1984). Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar (revidierte Fassung FPI-R und teilweise geänderte Fassung FPI-A1 (4. Aufl.). Göttingen: Hogrefe. Datensatz 9001360
Fahrenberg, J., Hampel, R. & Selg, H. (2010). Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar (8., erweiterte Aufl.). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
Fahrenberg, J., Selg, H. & Hampel, R. (1983). Die bevölkerungsrepräsentative Normierung des Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventars FPI-A. Diagnostica, 29, 336–343.Datensatz 0000535
Hampel, R. & Fahrenberg, J. (1983). Zur Revision des FPI: Weitere Analysen und ergänzende Tabellen zur 4. Auflage. Forschungsberichte des Psychologischen Instituts der Universität Freiburg, Nr. 12. Und online in Internet: urn:nbn:de:bsz:291-psydok-26185 [und ](Stand: 28.06.2010)Datensatz 0002326


Further Reading

Further Reading
Hollmann, H. (1988). Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar. Diagnostica, 34, 277–285.
Jäger, R. S. (1985). Testinformationen. Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar (FPI). Diagnostica, 31, 246–250.
Ostendorf, F. (1997) Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar – Revidierte Fassung (FPI-R). Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 18, 81–85.
Roth, M., Schmitt, V. & Herzberg, P.Y. (2010). Psychologische Diagnostik in der Praxis: Ergebnis einer Umfrage unter BDP-Mitgliedern. Report Psychologie, 35, Heft 3, 118-128.Datensatz 0226481
Seidenstücker, G. (1985). Testbesprechung. Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar in der vierten Auflage. Was ist neu? Was bringt es dem Klinischen Psychologen. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie, 14, 242–246.


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