Freiburg Personality Inventory FPI-R. Primary data from the standardization sample 1999.

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Fahrenberg, Jochen
Hampel, Rainer
Selg, Herbert


Dataset Information

Title Freiburg Personality Inventory FPI-R. Primary data from the standardization sample 1999.
Original Title Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar FPI-R. Primärdaten der Normierungsstichprobe 1999.
Citation Fahrenberg, J., Hampel, R., & Selg, H. (2010). Freiburg Personality Inventory FPI-R. Primary data from the standardization sample 1999. [Translated Title] (Version 1.0.0) [Data and Documentation]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology ZPID.
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach (IfD)
Data Collection Completion Date 1999
Dataset Publication 2010
Dataset ID fgjn99fr19
Study Description The Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI-R) is a personality inventory for adolescents and adults (aged 16 years to old age). It can generally be used for assessment of personality traits and in clinical diagnostics. Twelve personality characteristics are assessed by the 138 items of this questionnaire: life satisfaction, social orientation, achievement orientation, inhibitedness, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, strain, somatic complaints, health concern, frankness, and the 2 secondary factors (following Eysenck) extraversion and emotionality (neuroticism).
The test's development is thoroughly detailed in the test manuals (1st edition, 1970, to 8th edition, 2010). The first representative standardization was performed in 1982, but only related to the old German federal states (i.e., the former West Germany). For the necessary purposes of quality control, a new standardization was conducted in 1999. This included the new federal states (i.e., the former East Germany) and examined whether and to what extent the norms had changed in the 17 years between 1982 and 1999. Instead of the desired cohort study, only 2 cross-sectional comparisons could be conducted. In the new study, both methodological characteristics (including the reliabilities) and the structure of the scales were tested.
In summary, the results of the quality control showed that the structure of the FPI scales and the standardization of test scores could be reproduced in an unexpectedly clear manner.
The representative survey conducted by the Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach (IfD - Institute for Public Opinion Research) was used again to obtain, beyond the FPI data, sociodemographic and psychological data of interest. In addition to the block of 138 FPI-R items, the questionnaire contains a modified list of statements concerning political and social topics along with issues concerning the areas of occupational stress, life satisfaction, risk factors, and health. As in the previous survey, statistical analysis of this data is meant to provide certain validity indicators for specific FPI-R scales. The planning, evaluation, and presentation of the results of the new survey are closely related to the survey conducted in 1982 of which the primary data is archived under the identification code fgjn82fr19.
Three areas of the FPI have been further differentiated by scale construction and representative population standardization: using the Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Aggressivitätsfaktoren (FAF; a questionnaire for the measurement of aggressiveness factors, Hampel & Selg, 1975), the Freiburger Beschwerdenliste FBL-R (FBL-R; Freiburg Complaint List, Fahrenberg, 1994), and the Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit (FLZ; Questionnaire of Life Satisfaction, Fahrenberg, Myrtek, Schumacher ,& Brähler, 2000). The primary data of the FBL-R survey from 1993 are archived under the identification code fgjn93fr19; the primary data of the FLZ from 1994 under the identification code fgjn94fr12.
Hypotheses The standardization of 1982 is satisfactorily reproducible in the new 1999 survey, the resulting differences having only a small effect size. The scales of the FPI-R are satisfactory reproducible, with the structure and test statistical values aligning on the most important issues.
Keyphrase validation of "Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar" (FPI), questionnaire for assessment of personality traits, representative sample of 3740 Germans aged 16 years and older, primary data
Funding -
Rating The most important aspects of the sample's socio-economic status and other characteristics are noted in the test manual along with the ratio schedule for the stratified characteristics as well as the expected values for the other, nonstratified characteristics. The correspondence between the expected and actual values of the stratified characteristics is very satisfying.
In summary, it can be said that this sample provides a representative picture of the respondents the survey intended to cover and is, therefore, a representative sample of the population in Germany aged 16 years or older.
Most of the FPI items are missing less than 20 of 3,740 answers. The mean lack of response within the sample is .29 (of 138 items) with a range from 0-7.
The introduction item ("I have read the instructions and I am willing to answer each question set.") was answered in the negative by 36 people. These questionnaires were still included in the analysis since, in terms of key socio-demographic characteristics and the initially calculated 12 FPI-R scales, no significant (p <.01) differences were found. In the political/social items as well as the items concerning basic occupational stress and general health a greater number of missing data has been permitted.
The status characteristics of 3,660 subjects (98%) of the sample (3,740) are nearly complete and stem from the Institute for Demoscopy (IfD) interviews. Contradictory information concerning gender and age (age group) between the FPI questionnaire and the IfD data were excluded. Also, with regard to education, employment, and occupation there are no notable deviations other than in a small percent of cases. Generally, data concerning gender and age were taken from the FPI questionnaire and used in the statistical analysis and for the normalization of the FPI test values.
File Access Criteria

Data files and additional material that belong to access category 1indication of an academic email account and the intended use


PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Personality Scales & Inventories
Personality Traits & Processes
Controlled Terms Classical Test Theory
Personality Measures
Test Standardization
Test Construction
Personality Traits
Depression (Emotion)
Data Collection


Research Method Description

Research Method Description Test Data
Classification of Data Collection Normalized Test Procedure
Research Instrument Multistrategic design
The scale development of the FPI-R is both hypothetically deductive, with the necessary range of personality traits essential specific research and clinical areas, and empirically inductive, utilizing both factor and cluster analysis. The approach is trait oriented, and this personality inventory should serve as a medium bandwidth description system for various differential-psychological assessment tasks.
Factor analysis as well as cluster analysis, performed using Ward's method, was applied to the present dataset (1999). The Rasch scaling method was not used again as these models demand very restrictive conditions. These conditions lead to sometimes undesirable - even negative - consequences for the multifaceted personality characteristics which have not been sufficiently clarified. Even the newer item response models are not regarded as the "method of choice" for the construction of personality traits. See the detailed discussion in the test manual of the 8th Edition (2010).
The entire data (3,740) was used for the construction of the FPI. The analyses were performed with the relevant programs from the SAS (SAS Institute Inc.) and SPSS, the factor analysis with the principal components method and varimax rotation, and cluster analysis via Ward HGROUP (PROC CLUS of SAS, dissimilarity 1-r). Generally, no missing data were replaced, but, depending on the type of analysis, a reduced number of subjects (pairwise exclusion) was used. Variations between results may be due to differences in either the methods, of each algorithm (PROC instructions in SAS or SPSS), or by differences in the treatment of missing-data.
Results of the reconstruction
Comparison of the 2 large representative surveys from 1982 and 1999 showed that the structure of the FPI-R as well as the test-methodological statistics, reliability coefficients, and even the norms are highly reproducible. The grouping of items based on the new factor and cluster analyses corresponds largely to the previous item scale key. Individual differences are discussed in the test manual. The consistency coefficient (Cronbach's alpha), based on the new normative sample are between 0.73 and 0.83. These coefficients are satisfactory for the 12 (or rather 14) item scales. While higher coefficients would indicate a greater homogeneity, they would show a redundancy of item content. Stability coefficients are from (nonrepresentative) studies.
The standardization could be controlled using the representative sample for West Germany in 1982 and 1999 (partial sample). In addition, trends in the mean values of the FPI scales are an interesting find that needs to be cautiously interpreted due to a lack of a real cohort study. Highly significant changes (p <0.001) were identified in 5 FPI-R scales from 1982 to 1999: an increase in the test scores in the life satisfaction, aggressiveness, and openness scales and a decrease in both the social orientation and physical discomfort scales. The comparison of means is controlled by the factors of gender, age, education, and income status (matched-pairs method). The effect sizes of these medium changes are negligible (d = 0.20).
When comparing the 2 FPI-R sets from 1982 and 1999, distinct differences can be seen in several sociodemographic characteristics. This is mainly explained by the expansion of the population following reunification. The east-west differences in the FPI test scores point to a small effect size. Therefore, item and factor analyses were conducted using entire sample. A reduction of the sample to achieve a proportional composition based on each state's population was foregone.
Structure of the questionnaire
12 personality traits are captured via the 138 items of this questionnaire: life satisfaction, social awareness, performance orientation, self-consciousness, excitability, aggression, stress, physical discomfort, health concerns, and openness as well as the 2 secondary factors (Eysenck) of extraversion and emotionality (neuroticism). The questionnaire items are declarative sentences ("right", "wrong"). Based on factor and item analyses, 5 political attitude scales were heuristically formed from the 32 attitude items: conservative, liberal, green, proglobalization, and women's rights.
Data Collection Method Data collection in the presence of an experimenter
- Individual Administration
- Paper and Pencil
Time Points single measurement
Survey Time Period -
Characteristics -
Population Population of the Federal Republic of Germany (old and new states) aged 16 years or older
Experimental Pool Individuals
Sample Quota Sample
Subject Recruitment For this study approximately 500 survey assignments, made up of 5 interviews each, were distributed to states and local government districts that were divided according to 6 size classes. Within these regional districts the interviewer was instructed to combine a specific gender with an age bracket as well as a specific employment status in combination with gender and the varying professional circles.
In order to sufficiently analyze the new federal states, these were treated with more consideration than their actual share of the total population would normally mandate. If population-representative data for the whole of Germany is desired, this disproportional consideration must be reversed to the actual population share of 20% as opposed to the 44% used here.
Sample Size 3,740 individuals
Return/Drop Out Of the total of 4,097 people who participated in the multiple-topic survey from September to November 1999, 3,805 (93%) completed the questionnaire. 65 of these questionnaires (1.7%) were excluded: 17 due to inconsistencies between the FPI questionnaire and the IfD record concerning gender and age and 48 due to many missing data in the FPI. In concordance with the recommendations given in the manual, a questionnaire with more than 7 nonresponses (5% of the 138 items) was to be excluded from evaluation. The sample therefore included 3,740 persons. The interviewer noted whether the FPI was completed (63.9%) directly or completed later and then either retrieved (28.9%) or returned by mail (2.1%, 5.1% without notice).
Gender Distribution 53,4% female subjects (n=1997)
46,6% male subjects (n=1743)
Age Distribution 16 years or older
Special Groups -
Country Germany
Region -
City -
Variables FPI items
socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, marital status, single living, employment, occupation, retirement, East/West Germany)
opinions concerning social and political issues
occupational stress
general health
smoking habits
chronic illnesses
number of hospitalizations/surgeries/rehabilitation treatments/doctor visits
medication intake
socio-demographic information of the IfD (gender, age category, education, profession, income, number of persons in the household, number of children by age group, marital status, cohabitation, state, type of city, population)
question of the IfD (member of a church, denomination, church attendance, union member, political party, interviewer's assessment concerning length and interestingness of interview, completion of the questionnaire with/without the interviewer present, survey wave)
interviewer classification of IfD subjects (security, social class, energetic presence, respondent friendliness)


Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Questionnaire filled out by either the subject or the experimenter containing closed and/or open answers
Transformation Data from the subjects were coded and then immediately transferred into a machine-readable form


Description of the Provided Data

Description Primary data set
File Name fgjn99fr19_pd.txt
Data Content 3,740 subjects, 241 variables
Data Points 3,740*241=901340 data points
Variables FPI Items (138), Socio-demographic variables (10), opinions of social and political issues (32), occupational stress (3), satisfaction (4), general health (1), smoking habits (2), height (1), weight (1), overweight (1), chronic illnesses (1), hospitalization (1), operations (1), rehabilitation treatment (1), doctor visits (1), psychotherapy (1), medication (4), socio-demographic information of the IFD (25), church membership/activities (IfD) (3), information about the interview (interestingness, duration, presences/absence of the interviewer) (IfD) (3), classification of interviewers surveyed (security, social class, behavior) (IfD) (4), union membership (IfD) (1), political party orientation (IfD) (1), subject ID (1)
MD5 Hash e102262e82f5444b146fbb80827f3b6c
File Access Criteria access category 1indication of an academic email account and the intended use
Description Primary data set with derived variables
File Name fgjn99fr19_ad.txt
Data Content 3,740 subjects, 258 variables
Data Points 3,740*258=964920 data points
Variables FPI Items (138), Socio-demographic variables (10), opinions of social and political issues (32), occupational stress (3), satisfaction (4), general health (1), smoking habits (2), height (1), weight (1), overweight (1), chronic illnesses (1), hospitalization (1), operations (1), rehabilitation treatment (1), doctor visits (1), psychotherapy (1), medication (4), socio-demographic information of the IFD (25), church membership/activities (IfD) (3), information about the interview (interestingness, duration, presences/absence of the interviewer) (IfD) (3), classification of interviewers surveyed (security, social class, behavior) (IfD) (4), union membership (IfD) (1), political party orientation (IfD) (1), subject ID (1) FPI scales (12), political and social orientation scale (5)
MD5 Hash 1e9c728d9d2bec97ae81582c1f9d5bc4
File Access Criteria access category 1indication of an academic email account and the intended use


Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
German codebook of primary dataset fgjn99fr19_pd.txt fgjn99fr19_kb.txt
German codebook of primary dataset with derived variables fgjn99fr19_ad.txt fgjn99fr19_aa.txt


Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Fahrenberg, J. & Selg, H. (1970). Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar FPI. Handanweisung (1. Aufl.). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
Fahrenberg, J., Hampel, R. & Selg, H. (1985). Die revidierte Form des Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventars FPI-R. Diagnostica, 31, 1-21. Datensatz 0008231
Fahrenberg, J., Hampel, R. & Selg, H. (1984). Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar (revidierte Fassung FPI-R und teilweise geänderte Fassung FPI-A1 (4. Aufl.). Göttingen: Hogrefe. Datensatz 9001360
Fahrenberg, J., Hampel, R. & Selg, H. (2010). Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar (8., erweiterte Aufl.). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
Fahrenberg, J., Selg, H. & Hampel, R. (1983). Die bevölkerungsrepräsentative Normierung des Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventars FPI-A. Diagnostica, 29, 336–343.Datensatz 0000535
Hampel, R. & Fahrenberg, J. (1984). Zur Revision des FPI: Weitere Analysen und ergänzende Tabellen zur 4. Auflage. Forschungsberichte des Psychologischen Instituts der Universität Freiburg, Nr. 12. Und online in Internet: urn:nbn:de:bsz:291-psydok-26185 [und ] (Stand: 28.06.2010)Datensatz 0002326


Further Reading

Further Reading
Fahrenberg, J. (1994). Die Freiburger Beschwerdenliste (FBL). Form FBL-G und revidierte Form FBL-R. Handanweisung. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9000962
Fahrenberg, J., Myrtek, M., Schumacher, J. & Brähler, E. (2000). Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit (FLZ). Handanweisung. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9001035
Hampel, R. & Selg, H. (1975). Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Aggressivitätsfaktoren (FAF). Handanweisung. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9000731
Hollmann, H. (1988). Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar. Diagnostica, 34, 277–285.
Jäger, R. S. (1985). Testinformationen. Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar (FPI). Diagnostica, 31, 246–250.
Ostendorf, F. (1997) Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar – Revidierte Fassung (FPI-R). Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 18, 81–85.
Roth, M., Schmitt, V. & Herzberg, P.Y. (2010). Psychologische Diagnostik in der Praxis: Ergebnis einer Umfrage unter BDP-Mitgliedern. Report Psychologie, 35, Heft 3, 118-128. Datensatz 0226481
Seidenstücker, G. (1985). Testbesprechung. Das Freiburger Persönlichkeitsinventar in der vierten Auflage. Was ist neu? Was bringt es dem Klinischen Psychologen. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie, 14, 242–246.


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