Navigation

Service-Menü

Hauptmenü




Primary data on the pre-study experience sampling from 2017

Order Dataset

Print View

Researchers

Name
Grund, Axel
Fries, Stefan
Senker, Kerstin

Top

Dataset Information

Title Primary data on the pre-study experience sampling from 2017
Original Title Primärdaten zur Vorstudie Experience-Sampling aus dem Jahr 2017
Citation Grund, A., Fries, S., & Senker, K. (2021). Primary data on the pre-study experience sampling from 2017 [Translated Title] (Version 1.0.0) [Data and Documentation]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology ZPID. https://doi.org/10.5160/psychdata.gdal17pr09
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Primärforscher
Data Collection Completion Date 2017
Dataset Publication 2021
Dataset ID gdal17pr09
Study Description The aim of the study was to initially relate different aspects of self-regulation to the everyday experience of students ("preliminary study"). The focus was on the constructs mindfulness, self-control, affect, and motivation. The special feature of the study is that these constructs were operationalized at both trait and state level. Sample was a casual sample of students (N = 57) at Bielefeld University. The study design was as follows: first, students were familiarized with the study design in small groups. In addition, trait measurement of the different constructs (e.g., trait mindfulness and self-control) was conducted via self-report questionnaire, and study participants loaded an experience sampling (ES) software (LifeData) onto their private smartphones. They then provided information about their momentary experience and behavior at random times throughout the day over a period of one week (up to 35 measurements per person in total). Central constructs in the ES were momentary affect, mindfulness, and motivational conflict experience. Subsequently, the study participants received monetary compensation of up to 40 euros depending on their compliance with the ES and answered some of the trait questionnaires again to determine possible changes over time.

In a first publication, trait and state mindfulness were found to converge and to be associated with a lower experience of conflict, even when the current state of mind of the study participants was controlled (Senker, Fries, & Grund, 2020).

Due to the high cost of ES studies, additional constructs beyond these core constructs were collected at both the trait and state levels (e.g., trait well-being, achievement motive, and responses to conflict experience). In particular, in addition to the ES, there was a daily "evening questionnaire" at a fixed time, in which assessments of daily time use, stress experience, and achievement emotions were to be given. No publications have been made on this to date.
Hypotheses We hypothesized that both higher trait and state mindfulness in everyday life would be associated with lower conflict experience. In addition, we hypothesized that state-mindfulness would be predicted by trait-mindfulness.
Keyphrase -
Funding German Research Foundation (DFG)
Rating Overall, there was a high compliance rate in the experience sampling. In addition, most of the constructs showed good to acceptable measurement quality (e.g., Cronbach's alpha). Most participants reported that participation in the study was time-consuming but easy to integrate into everyday life.

Note: due to a technical error, the item KF_P10_PA (PANAVA-KS 10) was unfortunately not presented to the subjects.
File Access Criteria

Data files and additional material that belong to access category 1indication of an academic email account and the intended use
gdal17pr09_pd

Top

PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Personality Psychology
Controlled Terms Motivation
Self-Regulation
Self-Control
Emotions
Stress
Data Collection

Top

Research Method Description

Research Method Description Questionnaire Data
Classification of Data Collection -
Research Instrument Where possible, we used validated instruments for operationalization. This applies in particular to the trait measurements. For the state measurements of mindfulness, we developed our own items on the basis of the relevant literature, each with 4 statements covering two central aspects of mindfulness, present orientation or "presence" and acceptance without evaluation or "equanimity", analogous to the trait level, whereby the content validity of both facets of state mindfulness was particularly important to us, as well as the possibility of calculating various quality criteria of the measurement accuracy. In this sense, the present study was also intended as a test of these items.

Specifically, subjects were asked to comment on statements such as "I rush through what I was doing without really being attentive to it." (Presence_1) or "I performed the activity without judging it greatly. ("Equi_2") with reference to their current experience and behavior (or their experience and behavior before the ES signal reached them) (cf. Senker et al., 2020).
Data Collection Method Survey in the presence of an investigator
- group default
- computerized
- special apparatus or measuring instruments, namely: Trait questionnaires: Unipark

Survey in the absence of an investigator
- Other method, namely: Experience sampling: LifeData software (on study participants' private smartphones).
Time Points repeated measurements
Survey Time Period Intensive longitudinal design (cf. Bolger & Laurenceau, 2013); up to 42 (or 48 with follow-up option) measurement time points nested within individuals
Characteristics -
Population Students at Bielefeld University
Experimental Pool Individuals

Other: Measurement time points within individuals
Sample convenient sample
Subject Recruitment Potential participants were recruited in various lectures at Bielefeld University. In addition, information flyers were posted.

The central criterion was to be actively studying at Bielefeld University at the time of the study (i.e. attending events, etc.).
Sample Size 56
Return/Drop Out One person was excluded due to technical problems during experience sampling. One person did not participate in the post-measurement (= complete post-measurements of 55 persons).
Gender Distribution 68% female
32 % male
Age Distribution 19 to 39 years
Special Groups Students
Country Germany
Region East Westphalia
City -
Variables Variables are listed according to their order of recording in the corresponding questionnaire.


Experience sampling questionnaire (in the data set starting with KF_):
- VP number / ID
- Ascending order of ES questionnaires within a person
- Weekday of the start of the survey
- Condition (only concerns the order within the short questionnaires)
- Survey data (date, day of week, time)
- Survey data (name of ESM questionnaire, processing started, questionnaire completed, delay, reminders)
- Activity context (e.g., study or leisure).
- Affect (PANAVA)
- Mindfulness (presence: own construct, adapted from Michalak et al., 2008 and Ströhle et al., 2010)
- Mindfulness (equianimity: own construction, adapted from Michalak et al., 2008 and Ströhle et al., 2010)
- Motivational conflict experience (cf. Grund et al., 2015).
- Conflict reactivity (only if conflict is affirmed, own construction)
- Filler items (only if no conflict, e.g., additional mindfulness items)

Evening questionnaire (in the dataset starting with AF_):
- Learning time (self-construction)
- Satisfaction with learning time (self-construction)
- Academic goal attainment (self-construction)
- Leisure time (self-construction)
- Satisfaction with free time (self-construction)
- Emotional experience (self-construal)
- Stress (PSS-4)
- Self-congruence (self-construal)
- Study load (Westermann et al., 1996)
- Self-compassion (self-construal / adapted from the SCS, see below)
- Current state of health (self-construction)
- If applicable, subsequent plans in the evening (activities)

Pre-Trait questionnaires (in the data set beginning with A_).
- Demographic data (gender, age, semester, field of study, intended degree)
- Current study project (e.g., thesis, etc.), time spent, and time period.
- Learning emotions (single items AEQ)
- Mindfulness: present orientation (presence); MAAS
- Mindfulness: Acceptance without evaluation (Equanimity); KIMS subscale
- Self-compassion scale (SCS)
- Mindfulness: Relativity (CHIME subscale)
- Self-control ability (SCS-K-D)
- Importance of self-control (self-construal)
- Achievement motivation (approach and avoidance; AMS)
- General life satisfaction (TFSF)
- General affective well-being (PANAS)
- Satisfaction with studies (Westermann et al., 1996)
- Study load (Westermann et al., 1996)
- Extrinsic motivation to study (self-construal).
- (Self-assessed) academic performance, high school graduation grade
- Social desirability: self- and other-deception (BIDR)
- Time of implementation

Post-trait questionnaires (in the data set beginning with B_)
- Current study project (e.g., thesis, etc.), time spent, and time period
- Mindfulness: present orientation (presence); MAAS
- Mindfulness: Acceptance without evaluation (Equanimity); KIMS subscale
- Self-compassion scale (SCS)
- Relativity (CHIME subscale)
- Importance of self-control (self-construal)
- General life satisfaction (TFSF)
- General affective well-being (PANAS)
- Study satisfaction (Westermann et al., 1996)
- Study load (Westermann et al., 1996)
- Extrinsic motivation to study (self-construction)
- Survey information (representativeness, conscientious/complete completion, meditation experience)
- Time of implementation

Top

Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Questionnaires filled out by Vp or VL with closed and/or open answers.
Individual processing records in case of computer-assisted survey (personal data files)
Transformation File contains already recoded variables within scales.

Top

Description of the Provided Data

Description Primary data
File Name gdal17pr09_pd
Data Content 3073 lines, 454 variables
Data Points 3073*454=1 395 142
Variables Variables are listed according to their order of recording in the corresponding questionnaire. Experience sampling questionnaire (in the data set starting with KF_): - VP number / ID - Ascending order of ES questionnaires within a person - Weekday of the start of the survey - Condition (only concerns the order within the short questionnaires) - Survey data (date, day of week, time) - Survey data (name of ESM questionnaire, processing started, questionnaire completed, delay, reminders) - Activity context (e.g., study or leisure). - Affect (PANAVA) - Mindfulness (presence: own construct, adapted from Michalak et al., 2008 and Ströhle et al., 2010) - Mindfulness (equianimity: own construction, adapted from Michalak et al., 2008 and Ströhle et al., 2010) - Motivational conflict experience (cf. Grund et al., 2015). - Conflict reactivity (only if conflict is affirmed, own construction) - Filler items (only if no conflict, e.g., additional mindfulness items) Evening questionnaire (in the dataset starting with AF_): - Learning time (self-construction) - Satisfaction with learning time (self-construction) - Academic goal attainment (self-construction) - Leisure time (self-construction) - Satisfaction with free time (self-construction) - Emotional experience (self-construal) - Stress (PSS-4) - Self-congruence (self-construal) - Study load (Westermann et al., 1996) - Self-compassion (self-construal / adapted from the SCS, see below) - Current state of health (self-construction) - If applicable, subsequent plans in the evening (activities) Pre-Trait questionnaires (in the data set beginning with A_). - Demographic data (gender, age, semester, field of study, intended degree) - Current study project (e.g., thesis, etc.), time spent, and time period. - Learning emotions (single items AEQ) - Mindfulness: present orientation (presence); MAAS - Mindfulness: Acceptance without evaluation (Equanimity); KIMS subscale - Self-compassion scale (SCS) - Mindfulness: Relativity (CHIME subscale) - Self-control ability (SCS-K-D) - Importance of self-control (self-construal) - Achievement motivation (approach and avoidance; AMS) - General life satisfaction (TFSF) - General affective well-being (PANAS) - Satisfaction with studies (Westermann et al., 1996) - Study load (Westermann et al., 1996) - Extrinsic motivation to study (self-construal). - (Self-assessed) academic performance, high school graduation grade - Social desirability: self- and other-deception (BIDR) - Time of implementation Post-trait questionnaires (in the data set beginning with B_) - Current study project (e.g., thesis, etc.), time spent, and time period - Mindfulness: present orientation (presence); MAAS - Mindfulness: Acceptance without evaluation (Equanimity); KIMS subscale - Self-compassion scale (SCS) - Relativity (CHIME subscale) - Importance of self-control (self-construal) - General life satisfaction (TFSF) - General affective well-being (PANAS) - Study satisfaction (Westermann et al., 1996) - Study load (Westermann et al., 1996) - Extrinsic motivation to study (self-construction) - Survey information (representativeness, conscientious/complete completion, meditation experience) - Time of implementation
MD5 Hash c0968ca20a7c73eaab5d98e37c91c466
File Access Criteria access category 1indication of an academic email account and the intended use
  

Top

Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
codebook for gdal17pr09_pd gdal17pr09_kb
English codebook for gdal17pr09_pd gdal17pr09_kb_en

Top

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Senker, K., Fries, S., & Grund, A. (2020). Mindfulness in everyday life: between- and within-person relationships to motivational conflicts. Current Psychology. doi:10.1007/s12144-020-00760-x

Top

Utilized Test Methods

Utilized Test Methods
Achtsamkeit (CHIME): Bergomi, C., Tschacher, W., & Kupper, Z. (2014). Konstruktion und erste Validierung eines Fragebogens zur umfassenden Erfassung von Achtsamkeit. Diagnostica, 60(3), 111–125. https://doi.org/10.1026/0012-1924/a000109
Selbstkontrolle (SCS-K-D): Bertrams, A., & Dickhäuser, O. (2009). Messung dispositioneller Selbstkontroll-Kapazität. Diagnostica, 55(1), 2–10. https://doi.org/10.1026/0012-1924.55.1.2
Motivationales Konflikterleben: Grund, A., Grunschel, C., Bruhn, D. & Fries, S. (2015). Torn between want and should: An experience-sampling study on motivational conflict, well-being, self-control, and mindfulness. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 506–520. doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9476-z
Selbstmitgefühl (SCS): Hupfeld, J., & Ruffieux, N. (2011). Validierung einer deutschen Version der Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-D). Zeitschrift Für Klinische Psychologie Und Psychotherapie, 40(2), 115–123. https://doi.org/10.1026/1616-3443/a000088
Affektives Wohlbefinden (PANAS:) Krohne, H. W., Egloff, B., Kohlmann, C.-W., & Tausch, A. (1996). Untersuchungen mit einer deutschen Version der „Positive and Negative Affect Schedule“ (PANAS). [Investigations with a German version of the PANAS]. Diagnostica, 42, 139–156.
Leistungsmotive (AMS): Lang, J. & Fries, S. (2006). A Revised 10-Item Version of the Achievement Motives Scale. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22(3), 216–224. DOI 10.1027/1015-5759.22.3.216.
Achtsamkeit (MAAS): Michalak, J., Heidenreich, T., Ströhle, G., & Nachtigall, C. (2008). Die deutsche Version der Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) Psychometrische Befunde zu einem Achtsamkeitsfragebogen. Zeitschrift Für Klinische Psychologie Und Psychotherapie, 37(3), 200–208. https://doi.org/10.1026/1616-3443.37.3.200
Soziale Erwünschheit (BIDR): Musch, J., Brockhaus, R., & Bröder, A. (2002). Ein Inventar zur Erfassung von zwei Faktoren sozialer Erwünschtheit. Diagnostica, 48(3), 121–129. https://doi.org/10.1026//0012-1924.48.3.121
Lernemotionen (AEQ): Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Barchfeld, P., & Perry, R. P. (2011). Measuring emotions in students' learning and performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(1), 36–48.
Positive und negative Aktivierung (PANAVA): Schallberger, U. (2005). Kurzskalen zur Erfassung der Positiven Aktivierung, Negativen Aktivierung und Valenz in Experience Sampling Studien (PANAVA-KS). Research reports from the project "Quality of experience inwork and leisure", 6. Zürich: Psychologisches Institut der Universität Zürich.
Achtsamkeit (KIMS): Ströhle, G., Nachtigall, C., Michalak, J., & Heidenreich, T. (2010). Die Erfassung von Achtsamkeit als mehrdimensionales Konstrukt. Zeitschrift Für Klinische Psychologie Und Psychotherapie, 39(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1026/1616-3443/a000001
Allgemeine Lebenszufriedenheit (TFSF): Trautwein, U. (2004). Die temporalen Facetten der Lebenszufriedenheit: Eine deutsche Adaptation der Skalavon Pavot, Dienerund Suh (1998). Diagnostica, 50, 182-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1026/0012-1924.50.4.182.
Stress (PSS-4): Warttig, S. L., Forshaw, M. J., South, J., & White, A. K. (2013). New, normative, English-sample data for the Short Form Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4). Journal of Health Psychology, 18(12), 1617–1628. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105313508346
Studienzufriedenheit & Studienbelastung (StuZu & StuBel): Westermann, R., Heise, E., Spies, K. & Trautwein, U. (1996). Identifikation und Erfassung von Komponenten der Studienzufriedenheit. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 43, 1–22.

Top

Further Reading

Further Reading
Grund, A., Grunschel, C., Bruhn, D., & Fries, S. (2015). Torn between want and should: An experience-sampling study on motivational conflict, well-being, self-control, and mindfulness. Motivation and Emotion, 39(4), 506-520. doi:10.1007/s11031-015-9476-z
Grund, A., & Senker, K. (2018). Motivational foundations of self-control and mindfulness and their role in study-leisure conflicts. Learning and Individual Differences, 68, 72-84. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2018.10.007

Top

Order Dataset


Address

Leibniz Institute for Psychology
Universitätsring 15,
Center for Research Data in Psychology
54296 Trier, Germany
Phone: +49 (0)651 201-2872
Fax: +49 (0)651 201-2071


Directions to ZPID


Kontakt und Funktionen