High-performance sports in children and adolescents from long-term perspective (KHLS-D3). Primary data of the third wave 1986.

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Kaminski, Gerhard


Dataset Information

Title High-performance sports in children and adolescents from long-term perspective (KHLS-D3). Primary data of the third wave 1986.
Original Title Kinder- und Jugendlichen-Hochleistungssport in langfristiger Perspektive (KHLS-D3). Primärdaten der dritten Erhebungsstufe 1986.
Citation Kaminski, G. (2005). High-performance sports in children and adolescents from long-term perspective (KHLS-D3). Primary data of the third wave 1986. [Translated Title] (Version 1.0.0) [Data and Documentation]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID.
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Kaminski, Gerhard; Mayer, Reinhardt
Data Collection Completion Date 1986
Dataset Publication 2005
Dataset ID kigd86ki19
Study Description The project "Child and Adolescent High-Performance Sports from a Long-Term Perspective" is the third and final data collection stage (D3) of a longitudinal study on athletes (mean age 12.6 years) participating in three selected sports (figure skating, swimming, gymnastics). It began in October 1974 (D1). Basic questions were:
(1) What are the essential characteristics of children/adolescents participating in high performance sports (HPS) compared to "normal" children and adolescents?
(2) Does the involvement in the HPS affect the lifestyle of the athlete in positive and negative ways?
(3) How does the situation change over a period of 4 years (D2, from September 1978, mean age 16.6 years)?

In contrast, at D3 the following issues were of interest:
(4) How does the HPS career end?
(5) How is the transition from an HPS to a normal, everyday life then accomplished?
(6) What is the cause of a premature termination of the HPS career?

At the time of survey D3 (1986), not all of the participants (mean age 24) had actually retired from competitive sports. Therefore, at D3 two subsamples are distinguished as:
- Already dropped out of HPS (75 subjects) and
- Still active in HPS (19 subjects).
Accordingly, 3 survey instruments were used:
- A general questionnaire (for all subjects),
- A "drop-out" questionnaire, and
- A "still active" questionnaire.
A qualitative methodology had more weight at D3 because of the focus on descriptive goal setting. The 3 questionnaires, therefore, contained many open-ended questions to which the athlete could formulate their respective view in detail, using everyday language and wording. The resulting consequences of this methodology for the data processing and analysis are presented in the methods section.
The specific thematic focus of the D3 project corresponds to a specific theoretical foundation. This helps to clarify the issues and to support the detailed planning of the methodological tools. Priority is given to decision theory and transition theory conceptualizations, which in turn are embedded in an overall ecological-psychological perspective. More details concerning this as well as the entire D3 project are available under kigd86ki19_in.txt in the template file. This also includes proposals for possible uses of the data.
The primary data for the study are provided in 4 files. Of these, the 3 questionnaires which were used are matched to the files they were used in. The fourth (special) file contains some data from the D2 survey of participants who no longer participated in the investigation at D3.
Hypotheses -
Keyphrase adolecent top-level athletes, effects on personality & lifestyle & behavior, termination of career & transition into every day life, longitudinal study, 94 German adolescent athletes, primary data
Funding Bundesinstitut für Sportwissenschaft (German Institute of Sport Science)
Rating Subject content and test language of most of the questions are derived from the theoretical framework of project's investigative aim (see section 2 of the dataset comments kigd86ki19_in.txt). Specific topics are addressed several times in successive questions; first, as open as possible semantically, then with increasingly specific semantic specifications. This form resulted, in part, in redundant answers or to the reference of answers given in previous questions. The use of more or less detailed "everyday-language" in answering the more or less open-ended questions created unique problems for data processing and encoding (see section 4 of the dataset comments kigd86ki19_in.txt).


PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Psychosocial & Personality Development
Engineering & Environmental Psychology
Controlled Terms Athletes
Athletic Participation
Athletic Performance
Adolescent Development
Sports (Attitudes Toward)
Ecological Psychology
Data Collection


Research Method Description

Research Method Description Questionnaire Data
Classification of Data Collection Partially Standardized Survey Instrument (provides question formulation; open answer format)
Research Instrument At the time of measurement D3, 3 questionnaires were used (see study description):
1. General questionnaire for the total sample:
Questions covering the following topics:
• socio-demographic information
• "warm-up questions" about high performance sport (HPS)
• training, relationship to coach, and physical impairments
• due to HPS
• influencing on the HPS commitment by other areas of life
• HPS career start and overall assessment of HPS
• financial burdens and support
• significance of HPS commitment in conjunction with lif after HPS
• motivation for HPS
• importance of public interest on career
• limitations of free time due to HPS commitment
• education and HPS
• free-time activities
• time perspective
• personality-shaping through the HPS
• habitual success/failure-interpretation ("Attribution")
• experience of worries and distress
• attitude toward performance and performance pressure
• advantages and disadvantages due to HPS
2. "Dropouts" questionnaire (subsample of the subjects that ended their HPS career):
Questions concerning the following topics:
• basic information concerning end of HPS career
• initial considerations to end career
• concrete implementation of resolve to end career
• Further details concerning the end of career
• current commitment to sport
• difficulties or ease involved in ending career
• subjective closure of career
• emotional cost of ending HPS career
• adjustment following career end
• life after HPS
• aftermath effects of HPS career
• financial security postHPS career
• hindsight, overall perspective of HPS, retirement from HPS, and the transition to a life after HPS.
3. HPS-active subjects questionnaire (subsample of the still-active subjects at time D3):
Questions concerning the following topics:
• future commitment to HPS
• main HPS-commitment motivation
• outlook toward career end
• outlook toward life postHPS career
• financial security postHPS career
• life postHPS
• positive and negative effects of commitment to HPS
• retrospective cumulative assessment of HPS commitment
• deliberations of HPS phase-out, reactions to these deliberations
Mostly freehand answers to relatively "open" questions, a few questions involving rating scales.
Data Collection Method Data collection in the absence of an experimenter
- Mail Survey
Time Points single measurement
Survey Time Period 1986 (measurement time point D3, the first 2 surveys were begun in October 1974 and September 1978)
Characteristics -
Population teen high-performance athletes
Experimental Pool Individuals
Sample Convenience sample
Subject Recruitment The recruitment of the sample was done at measurement time points D1 and D2 via the German national trainers and other sports officials involved in figure skating, swimming, and gymnastics. The subjects were paid with 40 DM for their participation. At measurement time point D3, all participants from D2 were asked to participate again.

Sample Size 94 subjects
Return/Drop Out Of the 117 proposed athletes, 107 were selected for the investigation and a final 98 athletes took part at D1. Of these, 89 subjects could also be obtained for the D2 survey. Following the same procedure, 53 more athletes were selected to take part at D2, creating a sample size of 142 subjects. Of these 142 subjects, 94 participated in the survey at D3 (8 years later).
Gender Distribution 52,1 % female subjects (n=49)
47,9 % male subjects (n=45)
Age Distribution 20-27 years
Special Groups Active high-performance athletes, early survey dropouts, dropouts from the high-performance sports
Country Germany
Region -
City -
Variables Personal Data
Introduction to the topic of high-performance sports (HPS) (successes)
Physical impairments
Influence of the HPS commitment on other areas of life
Career start and overall evaluation of HPS
Financial burdens and support
Significance of HPS commitment to postHPS life
Motivation for HPS
Importance of the public's interest for subject's HPS career
Limitations of life outside of HPS
Education and HPS
Leisure activities
Time perspective
Effect if HPS on personality formation
Habitual interpretation of success and failure (attribution)
Experience of worries and distress
Attitude toward achievement and pressure to perform
Disadvantages and advantages of HPS
Initial considerations to end HPS career (dropouts)
Implementation of resolve to end HPS career (dropouts)
Current sport activities (dropouts)
Difficult and alleviating situations (dropouts)
Subjective determination to end career (dropouts)
Emotional burden due to career termination (dropout)
Transition to postHPS life (dropouts)
Life postHPS (dropouts)
Aftereffects of HPS activities (dropouts)
Financial security following the end of HPS career (dropouts)
retrospective cumulative assessment of HPS (dropouts)
retrospective cumulative assessment of decision to end HPS career (dropouts)
Transition to the postHPS life (dropouts)
Intended future commitment to HPS (Active)
Main commitment motivation to HPS (Active)
Prospective outlook toward career end (Active)
Prospective outlook toward postHPS life (Active)
Financial security for postHPS life (Active)
PostHPS life (Active)
Positive and negative effects of commitment to HPS (Active)
Retrospective cumulative assessment of commitment to HPS (Active)
Deliberations of HPS phase-out, reactions to these deliberations


Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Questionnaire filled out by either the subject or the experimenter containing closed and/or open answers
Transformation The original records were processed in 2 stages. About 60% of all questions of the 3 questionnaires were processed immediately postdata collection by Reinhardt Mayer as part of his dissertation. In the secondary stage, another 30% of the questions (predominantly open questions) were processed by the author with the assistance of Ms. Tanja Niggel. At this point a semantic base was established. Subject's responses were then transferred in a segmented form to a text file in which nearly identical basic units were combined. The resulting groups of basic semantic units were analyzed, differentiated, and developed into basic categories. These basic categories were allocated code numbers. Using these codes numbers data files were created. The code numbers were entered in the same order as the responses were given in the original text. This revealed how many variables had to be considered for each specific question. More specific details are included the explanatory text (kigd86ki19_in.txt).
The resulting 9 data files were (6 from Stage 1, 3 from Stage 2) altered to fit the archive format. While the variable names were retained, 3 new data files were formed that reflect the order of the variables of the questions in the 3 questionnaires (general questionnaire: primary data in kigd86ki19_pd1.txt with the associated code book kigd86ki19_kb1.txt; "dropout" questionnaire: primary data in kigd86ki19_pd2.txt with the associated code book kigd86ki19_kb2.txt, "still active" survey: primary data in kigd86ki19_pd3.txt with the associated code book kigd86ki19_kb3.txt). A few existing data from the D2 survey, which were available to the subjects who declined taking the D3 survey, were placed in a separate data file (primary data kigd86ki19_kb4.txt with the associated code book kigd86ki19_pd4.txt).


Description of the Provided Data

Description Primary data for the study, general questionnaire
File Name kigd86ki19_pd1.txt
Data Content 94 subjects, 310 variables
Data Points 94*310=29140 data points
Variables subject ID (1), current high performance sport status (HPS) (1), personal data (9), entry into HPS (8), training (35), impairments/injuries (24), effect of HPS on other important areas of life (6), career start and self-assessment of HPS (37), financial burdens and aid (26), effect of HPS commitment on life postHPS (43), importance of public interest on HPS career (3), limitations on everyday life due to HPS commitment (11), relationship between academic achievement and HPS (15), time perspective (2), personality formation by HPS (1), habitual interpretation of success (4), habitual interpretation of failure (4), experience of worries and distress (21), attitude toward achievement and pressure to perform (26), disadvantages due to HPS (1), benefits due to HPS (1), disadvantages of HPS (13), benefits of HPS (18)
MD5 Hash 09286ac8ac06b8d6110c170a3f670fe5
Description Primary data for the study, dropouts questionnaire
File Name kigd86ki19_pd2.txt
Data Content 94 subjects, 228 variables
Data Points 94*228=21432 data points
Variables subject ID (1), current HPS status (1),basic information on career termination (5), initial considerations to terminate HPS (7), period between initial considerations to terminate HPS and final career end (15), steps taken to stop career (20), further details on career-end implementation (19), present sport activities (6), positive and negative consequences of withdrawing HPS (9), self-assessment of HPS career (7), psychological distress experienced due to career end (5), transition to life postHPS (31), life postHPS (15), aftereffects of HPS career (10) Financial security postHPS (5), retrospective cumulative assessment regarding HPS (6), retrospective cumulative assessment of leaving HPS (16), transition to life postHPS (50)
MD5 Hash 5b5ad9ec9f61a4a87a47ed7293840987
Description Primary data for the study, active Athletes Questionnaire
File Name kigd86ki19_pd3.txt
Data Content 94 subjects, 91 variables
Data Points 94*91=8554 data points
Variables subject ID (1), current HPS status (1),basic information on career termination (5), initial considerations to terminate HPS (7), period between initial considerations to terminate HPS and final career end (15), steps taken to stop career (20), further details on career-end implementation (19)
MD5 Hash f8024200c2a7629caa328dbe17b35f4d
Description Primary data for the study, Information from D2 measurement concerning "D3 decliners"
File Name kigd86ki19_pd4.txt
Data Content 59 subjects, 16 variables
Data Points 59*16=944 data points
Variables subject ID (1), current HPS status (1), personal data: gender (1), negative effects of HPS (5), positive effects of HPS (8)
MD5 Hash a12c84295142cf46056094e983055f51


Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
German codebook of primary data file kigd86ki19_pd1.txt kigd86ki19_kb1.txt
German codebook of primary data file kigd86ki19_pd2.txt kigd86ki19_kb2.txt
German codebook of primary data file kigd86ki19_pd3.txt kigd86ki19_kb3.txt
German codebook of primary data file kigd86ki19_pd4.txt kigd86ki19_kb4.txt
Explanations of the author's analysis of the survey data kigd86ki19_in.txt
Coding of the original records at different stages of data processing kigd86ki19_sy


Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Mayer, R. (1991). Prädiktoren einer frühzeitigen Beendigung der hochleistungssportlichen Karriere im Jugendalter. In M. Bührle & M. Schurr (Hrsg.), Leistungssport: Herausforderung für die Sportwissenschaft. Bericht über den 9. Sportwissenschaftlichen Hochschultag der Deutschen Vereinigung für Sportwissenschaft, Freiburg 1989 (S. 322-330). Schorndorf: Hofmann.Datensatz 0058632
Mayer, R. (1993). Zum Motivationsprofil jugendlicher Hochleistungssportler. Ergebnisse aus einer Längsschnittstudie in den Sportarten Eiskunstlaufen, Kunstturnen und Schwimmen. In J. R. Nitsch & R. Seiler (Hrsg.), Bewegung und Sport. Psychologische Grundlagen und Wirkungen. Bericht über den VIII. Europäischen Kongress für Sportpsychologie. Band 1: Motivation, Emotion, Stress (S. 60-66). Sankt Augustin: Academia-Verlag.Datensatz 0093033
Mayer, R. (1995). Karrierebeendigungen im Hochleistungssport. Ein Beispiel für Lebensentscheidungen und Umorientierung im Jugendalter. Bonn: Holos.


Further Reading

Further Reading
Kaminski, G. & Ruoff, B. A. (1979). Auswirkungen des Hochleistungssports bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Konzeptuelle Grundlagen und Fragestellungen einer empirischen Untersuchung an Eiskunstläufern, Kunstturnern und Schwimmern. Sportwissenschaft, 9, 200-217.Datensatz 1050504
Kaminski, G. & Ruoff, B. A. (1979). Kinder im Hochleistungssport. In H. Gabler, H. Eberspächer, E. Hahn, J. Kern & G. Schilling (Hrsg.), Praxis der Psychologie im Leistungssport (S. 200-224). Berlin: Bartels & Wernitz.
Kaminski, G. (1982). Kindersport in psychologischer Sicht - Perspektiven, ein Untersuchungsvorhaben und seine jüngsten Ergebnisse. In H. Howald & E. Hahn (Hrsg.), Kinder im Leistungssport (S. 92-112). Basel: Birkhäuser.Datensatz 0000588
Kaminski, G. (1989a). Transitions - "Übergänge" zwischen Lebensorten aus ökopsychologischer Sicht. In E. Wacker & H. Metzler (Hrsg.), Familie oder Heim. Unzulängliche Alternativen für das Leben behinderter Menschen? (S. 197-216). Frankfurt: Campus.Datensatz 0036123
Kaminski, G. (1989b). The relevance of ecologically oriented conceptualizations for theory building in environment and behavior research. In E. H. Zube & G. T. Moore (Eds.), Advances in environment, behavior, and design, Vol. 2 (p. 3-36). New York: Plenum Press.
Kaminski, G. (2000). Handlung und Sport – Eindrücke, Reflexionen, Folgerungen. In D. Hackfort, J. Munzert & R. Seiler (Hrsg.), Handeln im Sport als handlungspsychologisches Modell. Festschrift zum 60sten Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. Jürgen R. Nitsch. (S. 49-90). Heidelberg: Asanger.Datensatz 0145989
Kaminski, G. (Hrsg.). (1986). Ordnung und Variabilität im Alltagsgeschehen. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0014280
Kaminski, G., Mayer, R. & Ruoff, B. A. (1984). Kinder und Jugendliche im Hochleistungssport. Eine Längsschnittuntersuchung zu Fragen eventueller Auswirkungen. Schorndorf: Hofmann.Datensatz 0009473
Ruoff, B. A. & Kaminski, G. (1980). Auswirkungen des Hochleistungssports bei Kindern und Jugendlichen (Eiskunstläufer, Kunstturner, Schwimmer). Methodik und erste Ergebnisse. Sportwissenschaft 10, 169-184.Datensatz 1001766
Ruoff, B. A. (1981). Psychologische Analysen zum Alltag jugendlicher Leistungssportler. Eine empirische Untersuchung (kognitiver Repräsentationen) von Tagesabläufen. München: Minerva.Datensatz 5003243


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