Hopelessness Scales. Primary data from the standardization sample.

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Krampen, Gnter


Dataset Information

Title Hopelessness Scales. Primary data from the standardization sample.
Original Title Skalen zur Erfassung von Hoffnungslosigkeit. Primrdaten der Normierungsstichprobe.
Citation Krampen, G. (2004). Hopelessness Scales. Primary data from the standardization sample. [Translated Title] (Version 1) [Files on CD-ROM]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID.
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Krampen, Gnter
Data Collection Completion Date 1990
Dataset Publication 2004
Dataset ID kngr90sk04
Study Description The hopelessness scale (H scale) is a German scale developed by Beck, Weissman, Lester, and Trexler (1974) which measures optimism vs. pessimism with regard to one's life and one's own person. The theoretical background of the H-scale is found in the cognitive theory of depression by Beck (1972) and Stotland's (1969) instrumentally theoretical approach to hopelessness. Furthermore, the concept has references to the theory of learned helplessness and the formation of psychoanalytic theories (Krampen, 1979, 1982). Hopelessness can be understood as a complex expectancy-value-theoretical construct that, in addition to reduced competence and contingency expectations, includes changes in valuation of action and/or life goals (Krampen, 1994, p. 5). In this sense, Krampen organizes (1987) this construct at the level of relatively high generalized subjective valences and expectations within an action-theoretical partial model of personality (HPP, handlungstheoretisches Partialmodell der Persnlichkeit). Therefore, in addition to the questionnaire concerning perceived competence and locus of control (FKK, Fragebogen zu Kompetenz- und Kontrollberzeugungen, Staples, 1991; see the description in PSYNDEX tests Doc.-No. 2361), there is now another action-theoretical personality diagnostic tool with which Krampen (1994) tried to replace purely descriptive personality psychology in the factor analytic tradition with a more theory-based psychodiagnostic tool. The method was originally developed in the context of research studying depression and suicidality by measuring the subjective well-being of healthy as well as mentally ill and physically ill and psychosomatically ill subjects (Krampen, 1979). The items particularly measure the quality of each subject's future expectations in the sense of reduced personal goals. They relate to negative expectations about themselves, about their personal living environment, and their future lives. The measure is available in two parallel formats of the original standard version as well as a revised version: (1) Standard version H-S-scale with 20 alternative items to be answered (true/false), which is available in two parallel half-formats, each with 10 items (H-SA-scale, H-SB-scale), (2) Revised version of H-R-scale with 20 items to be answered in six steps (very wrong to very right), which is also available in two parallel forms with 10 items each (H-RA-scale, H-RB-scale). This dataset includes data from a representative sample of 2,051 German adults from the year 1990 which were used for standardization of the H-scale (Krampen, 1994). Along with the 20 items of the scale, a variety of socioeconomic variables were recorded.
Hypotheses -
Keyphrase measurement of hopelessness in adults, test construction & test standardization, personality traits & depression & future outlook & self-related cognitions & socioeconomic status, representative sample of 2051 German adults, primary data
Funding Rheinland-Pfalz Research Fund
Rating Implementation, evaluation, and interpretation objectivity are maintained. Reliabilities for norm sample: internal consistency ranged from .74-.92, split-half reliability ranged from .69-.85, and the parallel forms from .89-.90 (depending on test form). Validity calculations are outlined in the instruction manual (Staples, 1994).


PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Personality Scales & Inventories
Clinical Psychological Testing
Personality Traits & Processes
Affective Disorders
Controlled Terms Questionnaires
Screening Tests
Test Norms
Clinical Psychology
Cognitive Therapy
Depression (Emotion)
Treatment Effectiveness Evaluation
Data Collection


Research Method Description

Research Method Description Questionnaire Data
Classification of Data Collection Normalized Test Procedure
Research Instrument The scale design is based on concepts of classical test theory. The construction was based on the original English version of the H-scale that was translated into German. After examination of the data to ensure the meaningfulness and intelligibility of the items, an initial sample item analysis was performed. The item scores of the original (standard) version using a sample of 134 hospitalized patients, 42 healthy subjects, and 45 male prisoners were reported by Krampen (1979, task difficulty: .15 < pi < .80; discrimination: .27 Table 1: item scores of the various trials (Krampen, 1994; p. 30 onward)
Test version -- min.-pi-max. -- min.-rit-max.
H-S-scale - .16 .82 .21 - .52
H-SA-scale - .16 .82 - .22 - .43
H-SB-scale - .19 .82 - .18 - .48
H-R scale - .16 .82 - .26 .65 -
H-RA Scale - .16 .82 - .27 - .59
H-RB-scale - .19 .82 - .22 - .61
Supplementary notes
N = 2,051
Data Collection Method Data collection in the presence of an experimenter
- Individual Administration
- Paper and Pencil
Time Points single measurement
Survey Time Period 26th of October, 1990 to 13th of December, 1990
Characteristics -
Population German adult subjects
Experimental Pool Individuals
Sample A representative sample of German adults aged 18 and older (1990), German Market Research Institute (ADM)-sampling grid combined with 420 sample points, stratified random sampling method, random route, and random choice of target persons in the household. Weighting involved an approximation of the official population statistics (as of 31.12.1987) and an iterative weighting (by region, community size, gender, and age).
Subject Recruitment The data stems from a representative survey that was conducted in the autumn of 1990 by a society for marketing, communications, and social research in Hamburg (Gesellschaft fr Marketing-, Kommunikations-und Sozialforschung mbH, Hamburg GFM-GETAS) in collaboration with the Center for Survey Research and Methodology, Mannheim (Zentrum fr Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen e.V., Mannheim, ZUMA). Data was written down during the verbal interviews. The main survey was preceded by a pretest. See also sampling procedure.
Sample Size 2051 individuals
Return/Drop Out -
Gender Distribution 46,1 & female subjects (n=975)
53,9% male subjects (n=1106)
Age Distribution 18-90 years
Special Groups -
Country Germany
Region -
City -
Variables Subject ID, Socio-demographic variables based on the standard of the Sozialwissenschaften-Bus (III/1990), GFM-GETAS/Hamburg und ZUMA/Mannheim


Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Questionnaire filled out by either the subject or the experimenter containing closed and/or open answers
Transformation The original records were transferred into a data matrix via simple encoding rules. This data matrix is provided (kngr90sk04_rd), as well as the code book (kngr90sk04_kb). To create the H-scale the items ummbered 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15 and 19 need to be reversed. See also the test manual (Krampen, 1994). The reversal of the test items in the data set is compared to the manual and the evaluation templates of specified values. The aggregate instructions are provided (kngr90sk04_aa).


Description of the Provided Data

Description Primary data set
File Name kngr90sk04_pd.txt
Data Content 2,051 subjects, 75 variables
Data Points 2051*75=153825 data points
Variables subject ID (1), H-scale items (20), socio-demographic variables (54)
MD5 Hash 310b963384626d65e57b5eafaac5d9a9


Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
German codebook of primary data set kngr90sk04_pd.txt kngr90sk04_kb.txt
Primary data set transformation instructions kngr90sk04_pd.txt kngr90sk04_aa.txt


Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Krampen, G. (1994). Skalen zur Erfassung von Hoffnungslosigkeit (H-Skalen). Deutsche Bearbeitung und Weiterentwicklung der H-Skala von Aaron T. Beck. Gttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9000248


Utilized Test Methods

Utilized Test Methods
Krampen, G. (1994). Skalen zur Erfassung von Hoffnungslosigkeit (H-Skalen). Deutsche Bearbeitung und Weiterentwicklung der H-Skala von Aaron T. Beck. Gttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9000248


Further Reading

Further Reading
Beck, A. T. (1972). The core-problem in depression. In J. H. Masserman (Ed.), Depression (pp. 47-55). New York, NY: Grune & Stratton.
Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D. & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The Hopelessness Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 861-865.
Braun, O. L. (2000). Ein Modell aktiver Anpassung: Berufliche Zielklarheit, Organisationsorientierung, Mittelklarheit und Vorsatzbildung/Planung als vorauslaufende Bedingungen von Arbeitszufriedenheit, Wechseltendenz und Leistung. Landau: Verlag Empirische Paedagogik.Datensatz 0137528
Klauer, T. & Filipp, S.-H. (1997). Life-change perceptions in cognitive adaptation to life-threatening illness. Revue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee, 47, 181-187.Datensatz 0120285
Krampen, G. (1979). Hoffnungslosigkeit bei stationren Patienten. Medizinische Psychologie, 5, 39-49.Datensatz 1050361
Krampen, G. (1982). Differentialpsychologie der Kontrollberzeugungen. Gttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 1050890
Krampen, G. (1991). Fragebogen zu Kompetenz- und Kontrollberzeugungen (FKK). Gttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9002361
Krampen, G. (1997a). Autogenes Training bei depressiven Strungsbildern: Kontraindiziert oder als Vor- und Begleitbehandlung indiziert? Autogenes Training & Progressive Relaxation, 14, 6-10.Datensatz 0113188
Krampen, G. (1997b). Autogenes Training vor und begleitend zur methodenuebergreifenden Einzelpsychotherapie bei depressiven Strungen. Zeitschrift fuer Klinische Psychologie, Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 45, 214-232.Datensatz 0115545
Krampen, G. (2000). Handlungstheoretische Persnlichkeitspsychologie. Konzeptuelle und empirische Beitrge zur Konstrukterhellung (2., ergnzte Aufl.). Gttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0022290
Petry, J. & Jahrreiss, R. (1999). Stationre medizinische Rehabilitation von "Pathologischen Glcksspielern": Differentialdiagnostik und Behandlungsindikation. Kurzfassung des abschliessenden Forschungsberichtes an den Verband Deutscher Rentenversicherungstrger. Deutsche Rentenversicherung, 196-218.Datensatz 0129863
Stotland, E. (1969). The psychology of hope. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


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