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The influence of different instructions on the effects of stimulus membership in category ratings. Primary data.

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Researchers

Name
Petzold, Peter
Haubensak, Gert

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Dataset Information

Title The influence of different instructions on the effects of stimulus membership in category ratings. Primary data.
Original Title Einflu der Instruktion auf die Wirkung von Reizklassen in kategorialen Urteilen. Primrdaten.
Citation Petzold, P., & Haubensak, G. (2004). The influence of different instructions on the effects of stimulus membership in category ratings. Primary data. [Translated Title] (Version 1) [Files on CD-ROM]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID. https://doi.org/10.5160/psychdata.pdpr99ei20
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Petzold, Peter
Data Collection Completion Date 1999
Dataset Publication 2004
Dataset ID pdpr99ei20
Study Description According to the model of multiple standards, the boundaries of the stimulus area and the memory representations of previous stimuli have an equivalent function in the decision process: They serve as internal standards by which the depicted stimulus is compared. If this assumption is correct, then the influence of stimulus area and the influence of preceding stimuli follow the same regularities.
This hypothesis was examined for the effect of instruction on the modification of judgments via stimulant classification. Subjects assessed the size of squares on a 5-point rating scale. There were two classes of squares: empty or shaded. In Experiment 3, the subjects were asked to judge the empty squares only in relation to the other empty squares and the shaded squares only in relation to the other shaded squares (separation instruction). In Experiment 4, subjects were instructed to ignore the stimulus classes and to assess the individual squares in terms of all the squares (integration instructions). The discrepancies between the results of Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed the predictions of the model. In Experiment 3, the increase in the psychophysical function demonstrated that the class-specific area of the squares had been used. However, in Experiment 4, the entire stimuli area was decisive for assessing the size of the squares. For example, in Experiment 3 the sequence effect was stronger when the preceding stimulus belonged to the same class as the following stimulus, while in Experiment 4 the strength of the sequence effect was independent of any similarities between the presented stimuli. This confirms the equivalent effect of procedural structure on area effects and sequence effects.
The effect of stimulus classification on sequence effects was studied in more detail in Experiment 3. Interactions between the stimulus-judgment events were found in one and two trials prior to the actual trial. When both the preceding stimuli belong to the same class as the presented stimulus, the correlation between successive judgments is lower than when only the immediately preceding stimulus (but not the stimulus two trials prior) belongs to the same class as the presented stimulus.
Hypotheses Null hypotheses:
1. The instruction affects only the class specificity from the influence of the stimulus range.
2. With regard to the sequential dependencies, there is no interaction between the specified class of the stimuli 1 and 2 trials back.
Alternative hypotheses:
1. The instruction influences both the class specificity of area effects and sequential dependencies in the same way.
2. The effects of sequence immediately preceding stimuli and judgments are lower when both the stimulus from 1 trial back as well as the stimulus from 2 trials back belong to the same class as compared to when only the proffered stimulus from 1 trial back belongs to the same class.
Keyphrase cognitive frames of reference, psychophysical judgments, influence of instruction on categorial responses, total of 12 subjects, 2 experimental studies, primary data
Funding German Research Foundation
Rating -

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PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Sensory Perception
Cognitive Processes
Controlled Terms Psychophysics
Psychophysical Measurement
Magnitude Estimation
Rating Scales
Classification (Cognitive Process)
Data Collection

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Research Method Description

Research Method Description Experiment Data
Classification of Data Collection Experimental Design, Mixed Design, Laboratory Experiment
Research Instrument Stimuli consisted of 16 squares belonging to 2 classes: empty and shaded squares. The lengths of the squares in the 2 classes were chosen so that 1) a class of small and a class of larger squares were formed and 2) an overlap occurred in the classes, so that there were squares with the same length in both classes (4 squares of the edge lengths of 62-71mm).
12 students took part, having no previous experience with this kind of experiment. These subjects were divided and randomly given either the "separation" instructions (Experiment 3) or the "integration" instructions (Experiment 4). The wording of the instructions is found in the experimental program. The subjects were asked to judge the size of the squares on a 5-point rating scale . They had to press the corresponding number key on the keyboard. The next square appeared 1 second after each response. No feedback was given. Sessions consisted of 3 parts, each lasting about 15 minutes with 5-minute breaks. Square were randomly presented. It was verified that the autocorrelation function of the stimuli up to 8 trials back adopted no significant value.
Data Collection Method Data collection in the presence of an experimenter
- Individual Administration
- Computer-Supported
Time Points single measurement
Survey Time Period 1998-1999
Characteristics -
Population -
Experimental Pool Individuals
Sample Convenience sample
Subject Recruitment -
Sample Size 12 individuals
Return/Drop Out -
Gender Distribution 58,3% female subjects (n=7)
41,7% male subjects (n=5)
Age Distribution 20-26 years
Special Groups College students with varying majors
Country Germany
Region -
City -
Variables Independent variable: stimulus (length of the presented squares)
Independent variable: Instructions (Experiment 3 vs Experiment 4)
Dependent Variable: Judgment (assessing the size of the square)
Dependent Variable: reaction time
Formal features: Test subject ID number, session number, session part, number of trial run

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Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Individual processing records of the computer-based survey (person-related data files)
Transformation During the computerized survey the subjects' reactions to the stimulus material were directly logged into a data file. A review was directly carried out on trials in which no answers were given. For each experiment, a summary of the data matrix was generated for each trial participant. These data matrices (pdpr99ei20_pd1.txt and pdpr99ei20_pd2.txt) are provided.

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Description of the Provided Data

Description Primary data for the study (Experiment 3)
File Name pdpr99ei20_pd1.txt
Data Content 14,187 trial runs (from 6 subjects), 7 variables
Data Points 14,187*7=99,309 data points
Variables Subject ID (1), Encoding of the session (1), Encoding of each session part (1), Trial runs (1), Stimulus (1), Size judgment (1), Response time (1)
MD5 Hash 47f72a05ea6fb94637bdb685b7c23219
  
Description Primary data for the study (Experiment 4)
File Name pdpr99ei20_pd2.txt
Data Content 8,900 trial runs (from 6 subjects), 7 variables
Data Points 8,900*7=62,300 data points
Variables Subject ID (1), Encoding of the session (1), Encoding of each session part (1), Trial runs (1), Stimulus (1), Size judgment (1), Response time (1)
MD5 Hash ea6366e03cc36ced489a8b2bd0ee968d
  

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Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
German codebook of primary data set pdpr99ei20_pd1.txt pdpr99ei20_kb1.txt
German codebook of primary data set pdpr99ei20_pd2.txt pdpr99ei20_kb2.txt
Control program for Experiment 3; source program pdpr99ei20_sp1.txt
Control program for Experiment 4; source program pdpr99ei20_sp2.txt
Source program from unit for the control programs pdpr99ei20_sp1.txt and pdpr99ei20_sp2.txt pdpr99ei20_sp3.txt
Source program from unit for the control programs pdpr99ei20_sp1.txt and pdpr99ei20_sp2.txt pdpr99ei20_sp4.txt

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Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Petzold, P. & Haubensak, G. (2004). The influence of category membership of stimuli on sequential effects in magnitude judgement. Perception & Psychophysics, 66, 665-678.Datensatz 0173144

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Further Reading

Further Reading
Haubensak, G. (1992). Sequenzeffekte in absoluten Urteilen. Kritisches zur Methode. Zeitschrift fr Experimentelle und Angewandte Psychologie, 39, 101-113.Datensatz 0063374
Luce, R. D. & Green, D. M. (1978). Two tests of a neural attention hypothesis for auditory psychophysics. Perception and Psychophysics, 23, 363-371.
Petzold, P. & Haubensak, G. (2001). Higher order sequential effects in psychophysical judgments. Perception and Psychophysics, 63, 969-978.Datensatz 0151454
Ward, L. M. (1990). Critical bands and mixed frequency scaling: Sequential dependencies, equal-loudness contours, and power function exponents. Perception and Psychophysics, 47, 551-562.

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