|Title||Affective congruency effects in the Stroop task: Primary data and control programs.|
|Original Title||Affektive Kongruenzeffekte in der Stroop-Aufgabe: Primärdaten und Steuerprogramme.|
|Citation||Rothermund, K., & Wentura, D. (2004). Affective congruency effects in the Stroop task: Primary data and control programs. [Translated Title] (Version 1) [Files on CD-ROM]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID. https://doi.org/10.5160/psychdata.rdks97af99|
|Language of variable documentation||German|
|Responsible for Data Collection||Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk|
|Data Collection Completion Date||1997|
|Study Description||Examined associative and affective priming effects using a modified Stroop task in 2 experiments. In the first experiment the category specific priming effects, which occupy an intermediate position between stimulus specific associations and category relationships, were analyzed. The analysis of affective priming effects with the color task is particularly suited to test the hypothesis of an automatic activation spread to valence congruent content because they (a) eliminate alternative explanations in terms of reaction pathways or interference and (b) are sensitive for both specific (increased accessibility of certain stimuli) and nonspecific (global interference by emotional behavioral tendencies) affective activation effects. In the first experiment (SOA = 300 ms), the primes were presented without further processing instructions. In the second experiment (SOA = 500ms) the primes had to be reproduced directly after the color identification. In both experiments, significant priming effects for the associative material could be detected. Thereby the sensitivity of the procedure used for the detection of the priming effect was confirmed. In terms of the valence material in both experiments, no affective congruency effect was shown. The hypothesis of an automatic affective activation propagation, which was proposed in conclusion to previous studies which used other types of tasks examining the affective congruency effect, cannot be supported based on the present evidence. In addition to the primary data from both experiments, this record includes the aggregated subject and item data as well as the experimental control programs and evaluation programs.|
1. Affective congruence and associations exhibited equally strong priming effects in the Stroop test.
2 Associated primes did not increase the color time in the Stroop test.
3. Affective congruent primes increased the color time in the Stroop test.
1. Following associated primes, stronger priming effects were found in the Stroop than after nonassociated but affectively congruent primes.
2. Associated primes increased the color time in the Stroop test.
3. Affective congruent primes increased the color time in Stroop test.
|Keyphrase||affective congruency effects in Stroop task, affective priming & associative priming & semantic priming, spreading activation hypothesis, total of 102 college students, 2 experimental studies, primary data|
|Rating||As stimulus material was presented and reactions were recorded via computers, objectivity was assured. The reliability of reaction time aggregate and priming was not calculated as the investigation aim was a maximization of individual effects and a minimizing the influence of individual differences.
Validity: An automatic activation spread for associated concepts was analyzed using information the priming effects yielded. This technique provides a relevant and established paradigm for the analysis of processes of activation. The color exercise is a particularly sure and sensitive measure of automatic activation effects as it does not facilitate peripheral effects (reaction facilitation, reaction interference), and since both specific (semantic preactivation of certain concepts ) and nonspecific (preactivation affective interruptive reactions) result in activation effects in delayed color naming.
Social Perception & Cognition
|Research Method Description||Experiment Data|
|Classification of Data Collection||Experimental Design, Mixed Design, Laboratory Experiment|
|Research Instrument||Experiment 1: Material type (associated, valent), the priming factor (associated/congruent, not associated/incongruent, neutral), and the blocks (Block 1 vs Block 2). The priming and block factors were measured again. 6 conditions of these 2 factors were linked with 6 material sets and 6 samples within each condition of the factor material type for a balanced design. The presentation of color stimuli in the Stroop task was balanced by an additional control factor above and beyond the sampling. The study was conducted in individual sessions.
At the beginning, 20 sample runs were processed with the Stroop task and a further 8 runs with priming. After this a total of 96 experimental runs were performed. The test was carried out in 2 blocks with a break lasting for as long as each subject chose. In each trial run, the white prime word was presented against a black screen for 200 msec. After 100 msec, the target was presented (SOA = 300 msec). When colored red, green, yellow or blue the target remained on the view screen until it was named, though never longer than 5,000 msec. Answers were spoken into a microphone. 3,000 msec after answering, the next prime appeared. The entire experiment took about 10 minutes.
Experiment 2: The design included the priming, repeat-measure factor materials, and blocks. The order in which the 2 types of material were processed, were balanced across the sample (factor sequence). 2 male and 2 female subjects participated in the 12 condition combinations. Individual sessions were conducted. After the trial runs, the 2 sets of material were presented in 2 separate blocks broken up with a break. This yielded a total of 192 runs. An SOA of 500 msec was realized. 500 msec after naming the color of the target stimulus, "Read the first word ..." appeared on the screen in white letters. 1000 msec after the word was read the next prime appeared. The whole experiment took about 15 minutes.
Ausführliche Angaben zum Experimentalaufbau finden sich bei Rothermund & Wentura (1998).
The following experimental controls were performed:
Randomization: random allocation of subjects to the between-subjects factors material type (Exp. 1) or material order (Exp. 2).
Balancing: Mapping of the experimental stimuli to the different conditions of the priming factor was balanced by a Latin square. The stimuli color in the Stroop task was balanced out by an additional control factor within the sample. In Experiment 2, effects of sequence in the processing of both task parts was balanced out by an additional control factor. Possible gender effects were controlled for by balancing subject gender (parallelization).
Detailed information on the experimental design can be found in Rothermund & Wentura (1998).
|Data Collection Method||Data collection in the presence of an experimente
- Individual Administration
- Specialized Apparatuses or Measuring Instruments, for example...
...Recording of spoken answers using a microphone connected to the test computer's Sound Blaster-compatible sound card.
|Time Points||single measurement|
|Survey Time Period||Experiment 1: December 1996- June 1997
Experiment 2: January 1997
|Characteristics||In Experiment 1 a program crash occurred for 5 subjects during data transfer. In Experiment 2, a crash occurred for 3 subjects in the sound control. All conditions were repeated.|
|Subject Recruitment||Participants were students at the University of Trier, primarily from the Department of Psychology.|
|Sample Size||102 individiduals (Exp. 1: 54, Exp. 2: 48)|
|Gender Distribution||52,9% female subjects (n=54)
47,1% male subjects (n=48)
|Age Distribution||19-44 years|
|Variables||Independent variables: instructions and stimulus material (computer screen presentation)
Dependent variables: reaction times and interference level (incorrect naming in the Stroop task)
|Data Status||Complete Data Set|
|Original Records||Individual recording using a computer-based survey (person-related data files)|
|Transformation||The original records of both experiments were transferred to a data matrix.
In each test run, the experimental conditions that were listed in the first row of the person-specific recording files were preceded by a subject identifier (file name). The files processed thus were attached to each other.
The variable names (in the first row of the resulting primary data matrices) were taken from the experimental control programs.
The data matrices and codebooks are provided separately for both experiments (Experiment 1: rdks97af99_pd1.txt and rdks97af99_kb1.txt; Experiment 2: rdks97af99_pd2.txt and rdks97af99_kb2.txt).
|Description||Primary data from Experiment 1|
|Data Content||54 subjects, 96 trials, 21 variables|
|Data Points||54*96*21=108,864 data points|
|Variables||Subject ID (1), Experimental conditions (10), Demographic and other subject characteristics (6), incorrect responses (1), response time (3)|
|Description||Person-specific aggregate data set for Experiment 1|
|Data Content||54 subjects, 19 variables|
|Data Points||54*19=1,026 data points|
|Variables||Material group (1), Condition-specific mean reaction times (6), condition-specific number of error-free runs (6) condition-specific number of errors (6)|
|Description||Item-specific aggregate data file for Experiment 1|
|Data Content||288 items, 15 variables|
|Data Points||288*15=4,320 data points|
|Variables||Item (1), Group, valence (2), Condition-specific mean reaction times (6), Condition-specific number of runs (6)|
|Description||Primary data from Experiment 2|
|Data Content||48 subjects, 192 trials, 21 variables|
|Data Points||48*192*21=193,536 data points|
|Variables||Subject ID (1), Experimental conditions (11), Demographic and other subject characteristics (3), incorrect responses (2), response time (4)|
|Description||Person-specific aggregate data set for Experiment 2|
|Data Content||48 subjects, 34 variables|
|Data Points||48*34=1,632 data points|
|Variables||Experimental conditions (6), Subject demographic characteristics (3), Condition-specific mean reaction times (12), Condition-specific number of error-free runs (12), Number of errors during prime reproduction (1)|
|Description||Item-specific aggregate data file for Experiment 2|
|Data Content||192 items, 30 variables|
|Data Points||192*30=5,760 data points|
|Variables||Item (1), Group, valence, dummy (5), Condition-specific mean reaction times (12), Condition-specific number of runs (12)|
|German codebook of primary data set rdks97af99_pd1.txt||rdks97af99_kb1.txt|
|Instructions and descriptions of the aggregate data files rdks97af99_ad1 and rdks97af99_ad2||rdks97af99_aa1.txt|
|Control programs for Experiment 1||rdks97af99_sp1.txt|
|Test materials (prime/target lists)||rdks97af99_vm.txt|
|Subject instructions for Experiment 1||rdks97af99_in1.txt|
|SPSS syntax statements for evaluating the aggregate data of Experiment 1||rdks97af99_sy1.txt|
|German codebook of primary data set rdks97af99_pd2.txt||rdks97af99_kb2.txt|
|Instructions and descriptions of the aggregate data files rdks97af99_ad3 and rdks97af99_ad4||rdks97af99_aa2.txt|
|Control programs for Experiment 2||rdks97af99_sp2.txt|
|Subject instructions for Experiment 2||rdks97af99_in2.txt|
|SPSS syntax statements for evaluating the aggregate data of Experiment 2||rdks97af99_sy1.txt|
|Publications Directly Related to the Dataset|
|Fazio, R. H., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Powell, M.C. & Kardes, F.R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 229-238.|
|Neely, J. H. (1991). Semantic priming effects in visual word recognition: A selective review of current findings and theories. In D. Besner & G. W. Humphreys (Eds.), Basic processes in reading: Visual word recognition (pp. 264-336). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.|
|Pratto, F. (1994). Consciousness and automatic evaluation. In P. M. Niedenthal & S. Kitayama (Eds.), The heart's eye (pp. 115-143). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.|
|Warren, R. E. (1972). Stimulus encoding and memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 94, 90-100.|
|Warren, R. E. (1974). Association, directionality, and stimulus encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 151-158.|