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Affective congruency effects in the Stroop task: Primary data and control programs.

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Researchers

Name
Rothermund, Klaus
Wentura, Dirk

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Dataset Information

Title Affective congruency effects in the Stroop task: Primary data and control programs.
Original Title Affektive Kongruenzeffekte in der Stroop-Aufgabe: Primrdaten und Steuerprogramme.
Citation Rothermund, K., & Wentura, D. (2004). Affective congruency effects in the Stroop task: Primary data and control programs. [Translated Title] (Version 1) [Files on CD-ROM]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID. https://doi.org/10.5160/psychdata.rdks97af99
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk
Data Collection Completion Date 1997
Dataset Publication 2004
Dataset ID rdks97af99
Study Description Examined associative and affective priming effects using a modified Stroop task in 2 experiments. In the first experiment the category specific priming effects, which occupy an intermediate position between stimulus specific associations and category relationships, were analyzed. The analysis of affective priming effects with the color task is particularly suited to test the hypothesis of an automatic activation spread to valence congruent content because they (a) eliminate alternative explanations in terms of reaction pathways or interference and (b) are sensitive for both specific (increased accessibility of certain stimuli) and nonspecific (global interference by emotional behavioral tendencies) affective activation effects. In the first experiment (SOA = 300 ms), the primes were presented without further processing instructions. In the second experiment (SOA = 500ms) the primes had to be reproduced directly after the color identification. In both experiments, significant priming effects for the associative material could be detected. Thereby the sensitivity of the procedure used for the detection of the priming effect was confirmed. In terms of the valence material in both experiments, no affective congruency effect was shown. The hypothesis of an automatic affective activation propagation, which was proposed in conclusion to previous studies which used other types of tasks examining the affective congruency effect, cannot be supported based on the present evidence. In addition to the primary data from both experiments, this record includes the aggregated subject and item data as well as the experimental control programs and evaluation programs.
Hypotheses Null hypotheses:
1. Affective congruence and associations exhibited equally strong priming effects in the Stroop test.
2 Associated primes did not increase the color time in the Stroop test.
3. Affective congruent primes increased the color time in the Stroop test.
Alternative hypotheses:
1. Following associated primes, stronger priming effects were found in the Stroop than after nonassociated but affectively congruent primes.
2. Associated primes increased the color time in the Stroop test.
3. Affective congruent primes increased the color time in Stroop test.
Keyphrase affective congruency effects in Stroop task, affective priming & associative priming & semantic priming, spreading activation hypothesis, total of 102 college students, 2 experimental studies, primary data
Funding -
Rating As stimulus material was presented and reactions were recorded via computers, objectivity was assured. The reliability of reaction time aggregate and priming was not calculated as the investigation aim was a maximization of individual effects and a minimizing the influence of individual differences.
Validity: An automatic activation spread for associated concepts was analyzed using information the priming effects yielded. This technique provides a relevant and established paradigm for the analysis of processes of activation. The color exercise is a particularly sure and sensitive measure of automatic activation effects as it does not facilitate peripheral effects (reaction facilitation, reaction interference), and since both specific (semantic preactivation of certain concepts ) and nonspecific (preactivation affective interruptive reactions) result in activation effects in delayed color naming.

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PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Cognitive Processes
Attention
Social Perception & Cognition
Controlled Terms Priming
Stroop Effect
Word Associations
Associative Processes
Data Collection

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Research Method Description

Research Method Description Experiment Data
Classification of Data Collection Experimental Design, Mixed Design, Laboratory Experiment
Research Instrument Experiment 1: Material type (associated, valent), the priming factor (associated/congruent, not associated/incongruent, neutral), and the blocks (Block 1 vs Block 2). The priming and block factors were measured again. 6 conditions of these 2 factors were linked with 6 material sets and 6 samples within each condition of the factor material type for a balanced design. The presentation of color stimuli in the Stroop task was balanced by an additional control factor above and beyond the sampling. The study was conducted in individual sessions.
At the beginning, 20 sample runs were processed with the Stroop task and a further 8 runs with priming. After this a total of 96 experimental runs were performed. The test was carried out in 2 blocks with a break lasting for as long as each subject chose. In each trial run, the white prime word was presented against a black screen for 200 msec. After 100 msec, the target was presented (SOA = 300 msec). When colored red, green, yellow or blue the target remained on the view screen until it was named, though never longer than 5,000 msec. Answers were spoken into a microphone. 3,000 msec after answering, the next prime appeared. The entire experiment took about 10 minutes.
Experiment 2: The design included the priming, repeat-measure factor materials, and blocks. The order in which the 2 types of material were processed, were balanced across the sample (factor sequence). 2 male and 2 female subjects participated in the 12 condition combinations. Individual sessions were conducted. After the trial runs, the 2 sets of material were presented in 2 separate blocks broken up with a break. This yielded a total of 192 runs. An SOA of 500 msec was realized. 500 msec after naming the color of the target stimulus, "Read the first word ..." appeared on the screen in white letters. 1000 msec after the word was read the next prime appeared. The whole experiment took about 15 minutes.
Ausfhrliche Angaben zum Experimentalaufbau finden sich bei Rothermund & Wentura (1998).
The following experimental controls were performed:
Randomization: random allocation of subjects to the between-subjects factors material type (Exp. 1) or material order (Exp. 2).
Balancing: Mapping of the experimental stimuli to the different conditions of the priming factor was balanced by a Latin square. The stimuli color in the Stroop task was balanced out by an additional control factor within the sample. In Experiment 2, effects of sequence in the processing of both task parts was balanced out by an additional control factor. Possible gender effects were controlled for by balancing subject gender (parallelization).
Detailed information on the experimental design can be found in Rothermund & Wentura (1998).
Data Collection Method Data collection in the presence of an experimente
- Individual Administration
- Computer-Supported
- Specialized Apparatuses or Measuring Instruments, for example...
...Recording of spoken answers using a microphone connected to the test computer's Sound Blaster-compatible sound card.
Time Points single measurement
Survey Time Period Experiment 1: December 1996- June 1997
Experiment 2: January 1997
Characteristics In Experiment 1 a program crash occurred for 5 subjects during data transfer. In Experiment 2, a crash occurred for 3 subjects in the sound control. All conditions were repeated.
Population -
Experimental Pool Individuals
Sample Convenience sample
Subject Recruitment Participants were students at the University of Trier, primarily from the Department of Psychology.
Sample Size 102 individiduals (Exp. 1: 54, Exp. 2: 48)
Return/Drop Out -
Gender Distribution 52,9% female subjects (n=54)
47,1% male subjects (n=48)
Age Distribution 19-44 years
Special Groups -
Country Germany
Region Rhineland-Palatinate
City Trier
Variables Independent variables: instructions and stimulus material (computer screen presentation)
Dependent variables: reaction times and interference level (incorrect naming in the Stroop task)

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Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Individual recording using a computer-based survey (person-related data files)
Transformation The original records of both experiments were transferred to a data matrix.
In each test run, the experimental conditions that were listed in the first row of the person-specific recording files were preceded by a subject identifier (file name). The files processed thus were attached to each other.
The variable names (in the first row of the resulting primary data matrices) were taken from the experimental control programs.
The data matrices and codebooks are provided separately for both experiments (Experiment 1: rdks97af99_pd1.txt and rdks97af99_kb1.txt; Experiment 2: rdks97af99_pd2.txt and rdks97af99_kb2.txt).

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Description of the Provided Data

Description Primary data from Experiment 1
File Name rdks97af99_pd1.txt
Data Content 54 subjects, 96 trials, 21 variables
Data Points 54*96*21=108,864 data points
Variables Subject ID (1), Experimental conditions (10), Demographic and other subject characteristics (6), incorrect responses (1), response time (3)
MD5 Hash 11a79bd7faa6f97af22eaf67089e13e1
  
Description Person-specific aggregate data set for Experiment 1
File Name rdks97af99_ad1.txt
Data Content 54 subjects, 19 variables
Data Points 54*19=1,026 data points
Variables Material group (1), Condition-specific mean reaction times (6), condition-specific number of error-free runs (6) condition-specific number of errors (6)
MD5 Hash ba7f99a34b573ff3ca0d9731709d7040
  
Description Item-specific aggregate data file for Experiment 1
File Name rdks97af99_ad2.txt
Data Content 288 items, 15 variables
Data Points 288*15=4,320 data points
Variables Item (1), Group, valence (2), Condition-specific mean reaction times (6), Condition-specific number of runs (6)
MD5 Hash 898655c0e4520ae8bfd2ae078ba3e5cc
  
Description Primary data from Experiment 2
File Name rdks97af99_pd2.txt
Data Content 48 subjects, 192 trials, 21 variables
Data Points 48*192*21=193,536 data points
Variables Subject ID (1), Experimental conditions (11), Demographic and other subject characteristics (3), incorrect responses (2), response time (4)
MD5 Hash 17f2bef1fc61363e4ef6e0ae636861f1
  
Description Person-specific aggregate data set for Experiment 2
File Name rdks97af99_ad3.txt
Data Content 48 subjects, 34 variables
Data Points 48*34=1,632 data points
Variables Experimental conditions (6), Subject demographic characteristics (3), Condition-specific mean reaction times (12), Condition-specific number of error-free runs (12), Number of errors during prime reproduction (1)
MD5 Hash fb4a313a85927747f59b093d3e2cac83
  
Description Item-specific aggregate data file for Experiment 2
File Name rdks97af99_ad4.txt
Data Content 192 items, 30 variables
Data Points 192*30=5,760 data points
Variables Item (1), Group, valence, dummy (5), Condition-specific mean reaction times (12), Condition-specific number of runs (12)
MD5 Hash 3d73b6de8116cb0b76433c741c34b827
  

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Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
German codebook of primary data set rdks97af99_pd1.txt rdks97af99_kb1.txt
Instructions and descriptions of the aggregate data files rdks97af99_ad1 and rdks97af99_ad2 rdks97af99_aa1.txt
Control programs for Experiment 1 rdks97af99_sp1.txt
Test materials (prime/target lists) rdks97af99_vm.txt
Subject instructions for Experiment 1 rdks97af99_in1.txt
SPSS syntax statements for evaluating the aggregate data of Experiment 1 rdks97af99_sy1.txt
German codebook of primary data set rdks97af99_pd2.txt rdks97af99_kb2.txt
Instructions and descriptions of the aggregate data files rdks97af99_ad3 and rdks97af99_ad4 rdks97af99_aa2.txt
Control programs for Experiment 2 rdks97af99_sp2.txt
Subject instructions for Experiment 2 rdks97af99_in2.txt
SPSS syntax statements for evaluating the aggregate data of Experiment 2 rdks97af99_sy1.txt

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Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Rothermund, K. & Wentura, D. (1998). Ein fairer Test fr die Aktivationsausbreitungshypothese: Untersuchung affektiver Kongruenzeffekte in der Stroop-Aufgabe. Zeitschrift fr Experimentelle Psychologie, 45, 120-135.Datensatz 0121597

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Further Reading

Further Reading
Fazio, R. H., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Powell, M.C. & Kardes, F.R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 229-238.
Klauer, K. C. (1998). Affective priming. In W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Eds.), European review of social psychology. Vol. 8 (pp. 67-103). Chichester: Wiley.Datensatz 0126350
Neely, J. H. (1991). Semantic priming effects in visual word recognition: A selective review of current findings and theories. In D. Besner & G. W. Humphreys (Eds.), Basic processes in reading: Visual word recognition (pp. 264-336). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Pratto, F. (1994). Consciousness and automatic evaluation. In P. M. Niedenthal & S. Kitayama (Eds.), The heart's eye (pp. 115-143). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Warren, R. E. (1972). Stimulus encoding and memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 94, 90-100.
Warren, R. E. (1974). Association, directionality, and stimulus encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 102, 151-158.
Wentura, D. (1997). Zur mentalen Reprsentation affektiv-evaluativer Komponenten: die Netzwerkmetapher und das Paradigma des "affektiven Primings". In H. Mandl (Hrsg.), Bericht ber den 40. Kongre der Deutschen Gesellschaft fr Psychologie in Mnchen 1996 (S. 964-971). Gttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0114677

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Universitätsring 15,
Center for Research Data in Psychology
54296 Trier, Germany
Phone: +49 (0)651 201-2062
Fax: +49 (0)651 201-2071


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