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Personality and Intelligence Interact in the Prediction of Academic Achievement

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Researchers

Name
Steinmayr, Ricarda
Bergold, Sebastian

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Dataset Information

Title Personality and Intelligence Interact in the Prediction of Academic Achievement
Original Title Persnlichkeit und Intelligenz interagieren bei der Vorhersage schulischer Leistungen
Citation Steinmayr, R., & Bergold, S. (2018). Personality and Intelligence Interact in the Prediction of Academic Achievement [Translated Title] (Version 1) [Files on CD-ROM]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID. https://doi.org/10.5160/psychdata.srra08pe02
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Ricarda, Steinmayr
Data Collection Completion Date 2008
Dataset Publication 2018
Dataset ID srra08pe02
Study Description Personality predicts academic achievement above and beyond intelligence. However, studies investigating possible interaction effects between personality and intelligence when predicting academic achievement are scarce, as is the separate investigation of broad personality factors versus narrow personality facets in this context. Two studies with 11th grade students (Study 1: N = 421; Study 2: N = 243) were conducted to close this research gap. The students completed the Intelligence-Structure-Test 2000 R measuring general reasoning ability, and a well-established personality inventory based on the Five Factor Model. Academic achievement was operationalized via Grade Point Average. Study 1 revealed that Conscientiousness interacted with intelligence when predicting academic achievement: There was a stronger association between intelligence and academic achievement when students scored higher on the Conscientiousness scale. Study 2 confirmed the findings from Study 1 and also found a moderation effect of Neuroticism (stronger association between intelligence and academic achievement with lower values on the Neuroticism scale). Analyses at the facet level revealed much more differentiated results than did analyses at the domain level.
Hypotheses We expected an interaction effect between Conscientiousness and intelligence predicting academic achievement.

We investigated in an exploratory approach if interaction effects between other personality traits and intelligence can be found.

Furthermore, we investigated in an exploratory approach, if analyses at the facet level reveal more differentiated results than do analyses at the domain level.
Keyphrase interaction between personality & intelligence predicting academic achievement, broad personality factors vs. narrow personality facets, I-S-T 2000 R & Big Five & NEO-FFI & NEO-PI, 421 (study 1) & 243 (study 2) German high school students mean age 16 years, research data
Funding -
Rating Personality and Intelligence were measured with well-established research instruments. Grade points were provided by schools pseudonymized.

Only students attending secondary schools participated, therefore variance limitations and limited generalization have to be considered. In study 2, the reliability of 5 of 30 facets was not acceptable.

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PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Personality Traits & Processes
Academic Learning & Achievement
Controlled Terms Academic Achievement
Academic Achievement Prediction
Cognitive Ability
Personality
Personality Traits
Intelligence
High School Students
Data Collection

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Research Method Description

Research Method Description Questionnaire Data
Classification of Data Collection Fully Standardized Survey Instrument (provides question formulation and answer options)
Research Instrument Short description of the employed tests:
Study 1: Borkenau, P. & Ostendorf, F. (1993). NEO-Fnf-Faktoren-Inventar nach Costa und McCrae.
- assessment of Big Five with 12 items (statements) per domain
- response format: 0 (strong rejection ), 1 (rejection), 2 (neutral), 3 (approval), 4 (strong approval)
- the research data file srra08pe02_fd1.txt contains the sum scores per domain

Study 1 and 2: Liepmann, D., Beauducel, A., Brocke, B. & Amthauer, R. (2007). Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R (erweiterte Aufl.).
- assessment of verbal, numerical and figural reasoning (overall score for reasoning)
- total of 9 task groups (3 per ability)
- the research data files srra08pe02_fd1.txt and srra08pe02_fd2.txt contain the overall score for reasoning

Study 2: Ostendorf, F. & Angleitner, A. (2004). NEO Persnlichkeitsinventar nach Costa und McCrae (revidierte Fassung).
- assessment of Big Five and each of the 6 facets (8 items per facet)
- response format: 0 (strong rejection ), 1 (rejection), 2 (neutral), 3 (approval), 4 (strong approval)
- the research data file srra08pe02_fd2.txt contains the sum scores per domain and per facet
Data Collection Method - Group Administration
- Paper and Pencil
Time Points single measurement
Survey Time Period -
Characteristics -
Population 11th grade students of German secondary schools
Experimental Pool Individuals
Sample Convenience sample
Subject Recruitment The survey took place as part of a job application training at secondary schools. The participants were informed that during the training they got to know instruments that are also used in personnel selection procedures. Participants were offered feedback on their results if they were interested. Only students whose parents had previously given their written consent could attend.
Sample Size Study 1: 421 individuals, Study 2: 243 individuals
Return/Drop Out Participation rate in both studies was 90%.
Gender Distribution Study 1:
49,4 % female subjects (n=208)
50,6 % male subjects (n=213)

Study 2:
44,9 % female subjects (n=109)
55,1 % male subjects (n=134)
Age Distribution Study 1: 15-18 years; Study 2: 15-18 years
Special Groups -
Country Germany
Region North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Wurttemberg
City -
Variables Study 1: Soziodemographic variables, academic achievement, intelligence, sumscores of NEO-FFI

Study 2: Soziodemographic variables, academic achievement, intelligence, sumscores of NEO-PI-R

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Data Status

Data Status Data Set Excerpt
Original Records Questionnaire filled out by either the subject or the experimenter containing closed and/or open answers
Transformation Data from the subjects were coded and then immediately transferred into a machine-readable form. Sumscores of the employed research instruments are provided.

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Description of the Provided Data

Description Research data file of study 1
File Name srra08pe02_fd1.txt
Data Content 421 subjects, 9 variables
Data Points 421*9 = 3789 data points
Variables age (1), sex (1), grade point average (1), Intelligence Structure Test 2000 R basic module sum score (1), NEO-FFI, Neuroticism - sum score (1), NEO-FFI, Extraversion - sum score (1), NEO-FFI, Openness - sum score (1), NEO-FFI,Agreeableness - sum score (1), NEO-FFI, Conscientiousness - sum score (1)
MD5 Hash 716c9a8fb8c3346de12bd47cacdc8ff5
  
Description Research data file of study 2
File Name srra08pe02_fd2.txt
Data Content 243 subjects, 38 variables
Data Points 243*38 = 9234 data points
Variables age (1), sex (1), grade point average (1), Intelligence Structure Test 2000 R basic module sum score (1), NEO-PI: Neuroticism domain scores (1), NEO-PI: Anxiety sum score (1), NEO-PI: Angry Hostility sum score (1), NEO-PI: Depression sum score (1), NEO-PI: Self-Consciousness sum score (1), NEO-PI: Impulsiveness sum score (1), NEO-PI: Vulnerability sum score (1), NEO-PI: Extraversion domain score (1), NEO-PI: Warmth sum score (1), NEO-PI: Gregariousness sum score (1), NEO-PI: Assertiveness sum score (1), NEO-PI: Activity sum score (1), NEO-PI: Excitement-Seeking sum score (1), NEO-PI: Positive Emotions sum score (1), NEO-PI: Openness to Experience domain score (1), NEO-PI: Fantasy sum score (1), NEO-PI: Aesthetics sum score (1), NEO-PI: Feelings sum score (1), NEO-PI: Actions sum score (1), NEO-PI: Ideas sum score (1), NEO-PI: Values sum score (1), NEO-PI: Agreeableness domain score (1), NEO-PI: Trust sum score (1), NEO-PI: Straightforwardness sum score (1), NEO-PI: Altruism sum score (1), NEO-PI: Compliance sum score (1), NEO-PI: Modesty sum score (1), NEO-PI: Tender-Mindedness sum score (1), NEO-PI: Conscientiousness domain score (1), NEO-PI: Competence sum score (1), NEO-PI: Order sum score (1), NEO-PI: Dutifulness sum score (1), NEO-PI: Achievement Striving sum score (1), NEO-PI: Self-Discipline sum score (1), NEO-PI: Deliberation Striving sum score (1)
MD5 Hash 1c7b7160e5308bc5defdfeb2c078aba9
  

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Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
Codebook of research data file srra08pe02_fd1.txt (study 1) srra08pe02_kb1.txt
Codebook of research data file srra08pe02_fd2.txt (study 2) srra08pe02_kb2.txt

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Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Bergold, S. & Steinmayr, R. (2018). Personality and intelligence interact in the prediction of academic achievement. Journal of Intelligence, 6, 27. doi: 10.3390/jintelligence6020027

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Utilized Test Methods

Utilized Test Methods
Borkenau, P. & Ostendorf, F. (1993). NEO-Fnf-Faktoren-Inventar nach Costa und McCrae. Gttingen: Hogrefe. Datensatz 9002328
Liepmann, D., Beauducel, A., Brocke, B. & Amthauer, R. (2007). Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R (erweiterte Aufl.). Gttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9004420
Ostendorf, F. & Angleitner, A. (2004). NEO Persnlichkeitsinventar nach Costa und McCrae (revidierte Fassung). Gttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9004469

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Further Reading

Further Reading
Di Domenico, S. I. & Fournier, M. A. (2015). Able, ready, and willing: Examining the additive and interactive effects of intelligence, conscientiousness, and autonomous motivation on undergraduate academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 40, 156162.
Heaven, P. C. L. & Ciarrochi, J. (2012). When IQ is not everything: Intelligence, personality and academic performance at school. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 518522.
Sackett, P. R., Gruys, M. L. & Ellingson, J. E. (1998). Ability-personality interactions when predicting job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 545556.
Zhang, J. & Ziegler, M. (2015). Interaction effects between openness and fluid intelligence predicting scholastic performance. Journal of Intelligence, 3, 91110.
Ziegler, M., Knogler, M. & Bhner, M. (2009). Conscientiousness, achievement striving, and intelligence as performance predictors in a sample of German psychology students: Always a linear relationship? Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 288292.Datensatz 0219479

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