Data from Cologne study on divorce 1990-1996.

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Schmidt-Denter, Ulrich
Beelmann, Wolfgang


Dataset Information

Title Data from Cologne study on divorce 1990-1996.
Original Title Daten zur Kölner Scheidungsstudie 1990-1996.
Citation Schmidt-Denter, U., & Beelmann, W. (2004). Data from Cologne study on divorce 1990-1996. [Translated Title] (Version 1.0.0) [Data and Documentation]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID.
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Schmidt-Denter, Ulrich; Beelmann, Wolfgang
Data Collection Completion Date 1996
Dataset Publication 2004
Dataset ID stuh96ko20
Study Description Investigated the change in family relationships following a marital separation/divorce. Family is understood as a unit which continues to exist in a reconstructed form following a separation/divorce. The change process is assumed to take place in phases while ultimately heading toward a relative stabilization of the unit. This process is experienced differently by family members, so that the change of the family unit cannot be adequately reconstructed from the perspective of a single family member only. These differing contexts by which family members view the situation are key considerations when hoping to correctly determine whether a family has experienced a successful or unsuccessful separation/divorce outcome.
The three-phase model of separation/divorce events which was used in a longitudinal study conducted at three different time points (10, 25, and 40 months after the separation) was supplemented by a fourth wave of data collection after 5.5 years. The data of the 60 participating families (first wave: one target child, mother, and father) were collected using a variety of instruments. Measures included the Familiendiagnostische Testsystem ("the Family Diagnostic Test System", Schneewind, Beckmann, & Hecht-Jackl, 1985), the Marburger Verhaltensliste ("Marburg Behavior List" Ehlers, Ehlers, & Makus, 1978), the German version of the Family Relations Test (Flämig & Woerner, 1977), the self-developed Kölner Fragebogen für Scheidungsfamilien ("Cologne Questionnaire for Divorced Families") featuring versions for mothers and fathers, and systematic interaction observations which were recorded by video to aid the analysis of mother-child dyads in standardized situations.
Main results regard the (ex-)spouse relationship, the family climate, and the childrearing practices from the perspectives of both the parents and children, with observed differentiating perspectives. One focus of the project was concerned with the child's experience of the separation and the consequences of this for the child's development. The occurrence of childhood behavior problems is alarming, although positive changes can also be demonstrated over time. From a differential perspective, three developmental types are distinguished: the "highly stressed" type, the "copes with stress" type, and the "mildly stressed" type. The strength of family relationships and social skills proved to be protective factors that moderated a child's adjustment process. The results support a consensus-oriented approach to deciding and agreeing upon custody and visitation rights.
In extensive datasets, the primary data of the study from 60 families on four occasions of measurement is available When established procedures were used, the scale scores are generally reported here. The data for the systematic interaction observation was derived from self-developed observation scales.
Hypotheses -
Keyphrase families' adaptation to divorce & marital separation, restructuring of family system, demands & coping behavior, differences between mothers & fathers & children & parents, effects of parents' coping with divorce on children's stress, 60 families, 6-year longitudinal empirical study, primary data
Funding German Research Foundation
Rating -


PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Developmental Psychology
Divorce & Remarriage
Controlled Terms Divorce
Family Relations
Parent Child Relations
Childhood Development
Child Attitudes
Coping Behavior
Longitudinal Studies
Data Collection


Research Method Description

Research Method Description Questionnaire Data
Classification of Data Collection Combined Standardized Survey Instruments (Combination of various standardized sections)
Research Instrument Several methods were used in the 4 study waves,.
(1) The first group was comprised of published test procedures, described only briefly here; reference to the original literature is made. In these methods, standard values for "normal" families are given; divorced families can be characterized by the deviation from these standard values.
"Marburger Behavior List" (Marburger Verhaltensliste, MVL): parent/child behavior problems occurring within the preceding 14 days were described using 80 items. 5 subscales were recorded: Emotional instability, Contact anxiety, unrealistic self-concept, social maladjustment, and inconsistent achievement.
Family Relations Test (FRT): The "subjective reality" of the family structure was captured from the child's point of view. The child first selected cardboard cutouts indicative of the different ages and sexes of all family members including themselves. 86 cards (40 in the preschool version) contained a statement which expressed a positive or negative feeling. The child assigned the cards to the member of the family to which it best fit. Cards that did not fit were placed on a "Mr. Nobody" cutout. The items were scored for individual family members by categorizing positive/negative feelings the child felt.
Family Diagnostic Test System (FDTS): the following items were selected from the modular test system: spouse relationship (mother and father), family environment (for mother, father, and child), and parenting practices (for mother, father, and child). Test instructions and individual items were adapted for those living separated.
- Spousal relationships: 2 subforms, one for the mother (M) and the other for the father (F). 4 scales are measured: Tenderness (M: 16 Items, F: 27 items), conflict (F: 11 items, M: 8 items), resigned dissatisfaction (M: 10 Items, F: 7 Items) and suppression (M: 6 Items F: 6 Items). The answers were given on a five-point rating scale ranging "always" to "never". The spouse relationship was not asked in the 4th wave.
-Family Climate: The family climate was recorded in a version for the mother (99 items), for the father (89 items), and child (99 items). The response alternatives were "correct" or "incorrect". The scales covered cohesion, openness, conflict tendency, independence, achievement orientation, cultural orientation, active recreational activities, religious orientation, organization, and control.
-Parenting practices: The mother's parenting practices in relation to the daughter from the mother's point of view (53 items), The father parenting practices in relation to the daughter from the father's point of view (53 items), the mother's parenting practices in relation to the son from the mother's point of view (53 items), The father parenting practices in relation to the son from the father's point of view (53 items), The mother's parenting practices from the child's point of view (44 items), and the parenting practices of the father from the child's point of view (46 items). Subscales are reward by loving care, material reward, restricted praise, withdrawal of love, withdrawal of material rewards, anger and contempt and physical punishment. The answers are given on a 5-point rating scale with the verbal anchors "always", "often", "sometimes", "rarely", or "never".
Used Only in the 4TH wave:
Hamburger Behavioral Assessment List (Hamburger Verhaltensbeurteilungsliste, HAVEL): This method is used to describe a mother's take on the child's current behavioral state. Every 10 items form 1 of the 4 subscales (dominance, vegetative instability, conscientiousness, and work attitude). The answers to the items were given on a 5-point rating scale (always or almost always, frequently, sometimes, rarely, never or almost never).
-Subjective Family Picture: data on the family relationships from the individual point of view of each family member. Child(ren) and parents all assess their relationships with each other based on the potency dimension (degree of individual autonomy) and the valence dimension (degree of emotional closeness) using a semantic differential.
(2) Cologne Questionnaire for Divorced Families
The questionnaire was developed specifically for the present study. The tool maps specific separation problems from the point of view of the mother and the father separately. In preliminary studies, a questionnaire was developed and tested that could be completed independently by the subjects. The 119-item questionnaire given the mother in the first wave covered questions concerning the child, the mother, personal and socio-demographic information, marriage information, the separation, and questions about the period immediately after the separation. In following waves the questions concerning the marriage and separation time were not presented again. There were also questions concerning new partnerships, the use of psychotherapeutic help, and details about the legal divorce and legal guardianship/visitation rights. Responses were partly given in a closed format, some with open formats. For the fathers' version most of the questions were repeated. Some areas were changed, added, or omitted due to distinctly different life situation the mother and child(ren).
(3) Systematic interaction observation of the mother-child dyad. For this, video observations of mothers and children in the home environment were carried out. 3 standardized play situations were recorded over a period of 10 minutes: Stacking game, building a Lego house, coloring a dream island. A 7-point rating scales was used with reference to the attachment research, the parenting style research, and the divorce research. The scales formed 3 groups: Mother's behavior (7 scales), Child's behavior (8 scales), and Dyadic Interaction (10 scales). A rating/training program was developed and implemented. In Wave 4, no systematic interaction observation was carried out.
Further information about the survey instruments and implementation can be found in Schmidt-Denter & Beelmann (1995).
Data Collection Method Data collection in the presence of an experimenter
- Individual Administration
- Paper and Pencil
- Photographs, Video and Audio Recordings
Data collection in the absence of an experimenter
- Mail Survey
Time Points repeated measurements
Survey Time Period Wave 1: 10 months after the separation; began February 1990
Wave 2: 25 months after the separation; 1991-1992
Wave 3: 40 months after the separation; 1992 to August 1993
Wave 4: 6 years after the separation; 1996
Characteristics The fathers were sent questionnaires with a return envelope. An examination date was made with the mother. Preliminary questionnaires were sent, with a request to complete it before the examination date. The investigation took place in the maternal home and began after a short introductory talk along with video recordings of standardized interaction sequences. Then an investigator administered the test to the child. During this time, the mother and the lead investigator could have a conversation regarding the completed questionnaire. Total duration of the study was approximately 2 hours. With the following waves, this time was shortened due to the mother and child's familiarity with the procedure (1-1.5 hours).
Population Separated families with a target child aged 4-10 years
Experimental Pool Families
Sample Simple Random Sample
Subject Recruitment For participant recruitment and information a cover letter and a special brochure was designed. Families received as thanks a list of local counseling services, 75 DM (25 DM per person), and an offer for a psychological consultation with the project staff. Recruitment was accomplished via articles and advertisements in various newspapers, at family centers, word of mouth between families, as well as through project staff and students.
Sample size of 60 families (180 individuals)
Sample Size 60 families (=180 individuals)
Return/Drop Out During the 2nd Wave only 50 families completed the sessions along with 3 cases in which only the mother or the father and child participated. During the 3rd Wave only 43 families participated while 7 mother/child dyads and 1 father took part. For the 4th Wave data from 46 mothers and children and 37 fathers are available.
Gender Distribution 43,3% female subjects (n=26, measurement point 1)
56,7% male subjects (n=34, measurement point 1)
Age Distribution 4-10 years (measurmentpoint 1)
Special Groups -
Country Germany
Region North Rhein-Westphalia
City -
Variables I. Economic situation:
financial Resources
Social status
Working hours
Residential situation
Change of residence
Change of schools
II. Social relations system :
1. Parent-child relationships:
Visitation structures
Visitation arrangements
Custody arrangement
Perceived relationship quality
Coping with separation
Family climate
Parenting practices
Interaction qualities (only mother and child)
2. (marriage)-partner-relationship:
Resigned dissatisfaction
Custody arrangement
Contact arrangements
Visitation structures
Relationship quality
Joint problem solving vs conflict load
Perceived separation causes
Psychosomatic symptom load vs health/satisfaction
3. Extended social network
Child' familial circle of reference
Sibling relationship
Peer relationships
Grandparent relationship
Child's relationship with the new partner of parent
Institutional care
Familial circle of reference of the mother or the father
Number of contact persons
Frequency of support
Type of support
Satisfaction with the support
New partnerships
Free time
III. Child adaptation and coping
Defense mechanisms
Emotional instability
Contact anxiety
Unrealistic self-concept
Social maladjustment
Inconsistent achievement
Child's reactions from the parent's point of view
Task-oriented behavior
Bonding behavior
Communicative behavior
Behavioral problems


Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Questionnaires were completed by subjects or experimenter with closed and/or open-ended responses; Video recordings, photographs, taped recordings, etc.
Transformation Of all the test standardized procedures used methods only the scale values are each reported. The corresponding derivatives are described in the test manuals. The data were assembled into a data file (stuh96ko20_pd1), which is provided with the corresponding code book (stuh96ko20_kb1). The data collected only at the 4th Wave were placed in a separate data file (stuh96ko20_pd7, code book: stuh96ko20_kb7).
The KFS data for the mothers and fathers were values that were directly transferred from the survey instrument using simple coding rules.
Open data were collected and categorized according to the requirements. Due to the abundance of the variables produced the responses of the mother (stuh96ko20_kb2, code book: stuh96ko20_pd2,) and that of the father (stuh96ko20_pd3, code book: stuh96ko20_kb3) were stored separately for the first 3 waves. Due to major changes in the questionnaire the data from the 4th wave were stored separately again (Mother: stuh96ko20_pd4, code book: stuh96ko20_kb4; Father: stuh96ko20_pd5; code book: stuh96ko20_kb5).
In regards to the systematic interaction observations, intervals and average ratings per scale for the first 3 waves are shared. These data are in the file stuh96ko20_pd6 with the associated code book stuh96ko20_kb6.


Description of the Provided Data

Description Primary study data (MVL, FRT and FDTS, Wave 1.-4.)
File Name stuh96ko20_pd1.txt
Data Content 60 subjects, 850 variables
Data Points 60*850=51,000 data points
Variables Case ID number (1), Case ID number for MVL, Wave 1-4 (4), percentile rank values of scale MVL, wave 1-4 (24), scale values of MVL, dichotomized, wave 1-3 (18), scale values of MVL, trichotomic, wave 1-3 (18), MVL-process cluster (4), Case ID number for FRT, wave 1-4 (4), version of FRT, wave 1-3 (3), number of siblings, wave 1-4 (4), indications of quartils of FRT, wave 1-4 (168), existence of siblings, wave 1-4 (36), frequency indications of FRT, wave 1-4 (168), Case ID number for FDTS, wave 1-3/4 (34), STEN-scale-values of FDTS for different participants, wave 1-3/4 (364)
MD5 Hash f9ef1dcbbe413122a19f1a3f6c5c7f00
Description Primary study data (KFSM, 1-3 Collection waves)
File Name stuh96ko20_pd2.txt
Data Content 60 subjects, 705 variables
Data Points 60*705=42,300 data points
Variables Case ID number, total and individual waves 1-3 (4), General information on the children, Waves 1-3 (23); Socio-demographic data, Waves 1-3 (18); General information on separation (3); Information about child, Waves 1-3 (162); Information about the mother-child relationship, Waves 1-3 (42); Information about the father-child relationship, Waves 1-3 (135); Information about the mother, Waves 1-3 (48); Information about the household/ budget, Waves 1-3 (42); Details about a new partnership, Waves 1-3 (39); Information about family relationships, Waves 1-3 (12); Information about acquaintance relationships, Waves 1-3 (6); Information about coping with separation, Waves 1-3 (80); Information covering the time before the separation, Waves 1 (34); Information covering the actual separation, Wave 1 (50); Information concerning the legal divorce, Waves 2-3 (4); Duration of marriage (2); life of the target child (1)
MD5 Hash c7ff62f75b9a22cf930cc2edaf4fc2f1
Description Primary study data (KFSV, 1-3 Collection waves)
File Name stuh96ko20_pd3.txt
Data Content 60 subjects, 752 variables
Data Points 60*752=45,120 data points
Variables Case ID number, total and individual Waves 1-3 (4); Socio-demographic data, Waves 1-3 (30); General information about separation, Waves 1-3 (4); Information about Child, Waves 1-3 (87); Information about the mother-child relationship, Waves 1-3 (59); Information about the father-child relationship, Waves 1-3 (209); Details of the relationship of the child to the new partner, Waves 1-3 (56); Information about the Father, Waves 1-3 (82); Information about the new partnership, Waves 1-3 (32); Information on the household/ budget, Waves 1-3 (31); Details of any contact with (former) wife, Waves 1-3 (36); Information about separation stressors, Waves 1-3 (16); Information about period before separation, Waves 1 (26); Information concerning the actual separation, Wave 1 (54); information about people in the household, Waves 1-3 (26)
MD5 Hash 56569c8ac9e8a3bb5754b61b7e149fcf
Description Primary study data (KFSM, 4th Wave)
File Name stuh96ko20_pd4.txt
Data Content 49 subjects, 274 variables
Data Points 49*274=13,426 data points
Variables Case ID number (1), Participants (1), Information about the child (88), information about the mother-child relationship (13), Information on the father-child relationship (37), Details of the relationship of the child to the new partner (26), Information about the mother (75), information about the household/budget (19), Socio-demographic information (5), Information concerning the legal separation/agreements (9)
MD5 Hash 608ba6fd69b6d89288b482a0e59bd1c0
Description Primary study data (KFSV, 4th Wave)
File Name stuh96ko20_pd5.txt
Data Content 49 subjects, 279 variables
Data Points 49*279=13,671 data points
Variables Case ID number (1), Participants (1), Information about the child (65), Information about the mother-child relationship (19), Information about the father-child relationship (71), Details of child's relationship to the new partner (32), Information about the father (68), household/budget information (17), Information concerning the legal separation/agreements (5)
MD5 Hash 1db02c79bb72c1a00e1468656ee0dbdc
Description Primary data for the study (Systematic observation of behavior, Waves 1-3)
File Name stuh96ko20_pd6.txt
Data Content 60 subjects, 79 variables
Data Points 60*79=4,740 data points
Variables Case ID number, total and individual Waves 1-3 (4), Ratings in the observation scales, Waves 1-3 (75)
MD5 Hash db48798de1be329bb10198ebad1dc321
Description Primary study data (HAVEL, SFB, 4th wave)
File Name stuh96ko20_pd7.txt
Data Content 49 subjects, 43 variables
Data Points 49*43=2,107 data points
Variables case ID number (1), case ID number for HAVEL (1), standard values of HAVEL scales (4), case ID number for SFB (1), sum scores of SFB scales (36)
MD5 Hash 4b2befb837a9f032f8d194fdf4ab7424


Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
German codebook of primary data file stuh96ko20_pd1.txt stuh96ko20_kb1.txt
German codebook of primary data file stuh96ko20_pd2.txt stuh96ko20_kb2.txt
German codebook of primary data file stuh96ko20_pd3.txt stuh96ko20_kb3.txt
German codebook of primary data file stuh96ko20_pd4.txt stuh96ko20_kb4.txt
German codebook of primary data file stuh96ko20_pd5.txt stuh96ko20_kb5.txt
German codebook of primary data file stuh96ko20_pd6.txt stuh96ko20_kb6.txt
German codebook of primary data file stuh96ko20_pd7.txt stuh96ko20_kb7.txt


Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Beelmann, W. & Schmidt-Denter, U. (1991). Kindliches Erleben sozial-emotionaler Beziehungen und Unterstützungssysteme in Ein-Elternteil-Familien. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 38, 180-189.Datensatz 0056643
Beelmann, W. & Schmidt-Denter, U. (2001). Der Family-Relations-Test (FRT). In D. Sturzbecher (Hrsg.), Spielbasierte Befragungstechniken. Interaktionsdiagnostische Verfahren für Begutachtung, Beratung und Forschung (S. 64-73). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0145257
Beelmann, W. & Schmidt-Denter, U. (2001). Neuere Forschungen mit dem Family-Relations-Test (FRT). In D. Sturzbecher (Hrsg.), Spielbasierte Befragungstechniken. Interaktionsdiagnostische Verfahren für Begutachtung, Beratung und Forschung (S.74-90). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0145258
Beelmann, W. (1994). Stressbelastung und Bewältigungsreaktionen bei der Auseinandersetzung mit einer Trennung vom Ehepartner. Eine empirische Langzeitstudie. Regensburg: Roderer.Datensatz 0083003
Schmidt-Denter, U. & Beelmann, W. (1995). Familiäre Beziehungen nach Trennung und Scheidung: Veränderungsprozesse bei Müttern, Vätern und Kindern (Forschungsbericht, 2 Bde.). Köln: Universität Köln, Psychologisches Institut.Datensatz 0097497
Schmidt-Denter, U. & Beelmann, W. (1997). Kindliche Symptombelastung in der Zeit nach einer ehelichen Trennung - eine differentielle und längsschnittliche Betrachtung. Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, 29, 26-42.Datensatz 0111534
Schmidt-Denter, U. & Schmitz, H. (2002). Familiäre Beziehungen und Strukturen sechs Jahre nach der elterlichen Trennung. In S. Walper & B. Schwarz (Hrsg.). Was wird aus den Kindern? Chancen und Risiken für die Entwicklung von Kindern aus Trennungs- und Stieffamilien (2. Aufl., S. 73-90). Weinheim: Juventa.Datensatz 0131368
Schmidt-Denter, U. (1996). Trennung/Scheidung als belastende Lebenssituation für Kinder. In T. Horstmann & Ch. Leyendecker (Hrsg.), Frühförderung und Frühbehandlung. Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen, praxisorientierte Ansätze und Perspektiven interdisziplinärer Zusammenarbeit (S. 167-173). Heidelberg: Edition Schindele.Datensatz 0102426
Schmidt-Denter, U. (1997). Kindliche Reaktionen auf Trennung und Scheidung. Befunde aus der Kölner Langzeitstudie. Familie, Partnerschaft, Recht, 3 (2), 57-59.
Schmidt-Denter, U. (2000). Entwicklung von Trennungs- und Scheidungsfamilien: Die Kölner Längsschnittstudie. In K. A. Schneewind (Hrsg.), Familienpsychologie im Aufwind. Brückenschläge zwischen Forschung und Praxis (S. 203-221). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0134699
Schmidt-Denter, U. (2001). Differentielle Entwicklungsverläufe von Scheidungskindern. In S. Walper & R. Pekrun (Hrsg.), Familie und Entwicklung. Aktuelle Perspektiven der Familienpsychologie (S. 292-313). Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 0150718
Schmidt-Denter, U., Beelmann, W. & Hauschild, S. (1997). Formen der Ehepartnerbeziehung und familiäre Anpassungsleistungen nach der Trennung. Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 44, 289-306.Datensatz 0115395
Schmidt-Denter, U., Beelmann, W. & Trappen, I. (1991). Empirische Forschungsergebnisse als Grundlage für die Beratung von Scheidungsfamilien: Das Kölner Längsschnittprojekt. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, 3, 40-51.Datensatz 0062211
Schmidt-Denter, U., Beelmann, W. & Trappen, I. (1995). Innerfamiliäre Entwicklungen nach Trennung und Scheidung: Ergebnisse der Kölner Längsschnittstudie. Report Psychologie, 20 (3), 20-27.Datensatz 0092672
Schmidt-Denter, U., Schmitz, H. & Schulte, S. (1994). Unsere Eltern trennen sich. Evaluation einer Gruppenintervention für Kinder aus Trennungsfamilien. In H. Cremer, A. Hundsalz & K. Menne (Hrsg.), Jahrbuch für Erziehungsberatung (Bd. 1, S. 163-184). Weinheim: Juventa.Datensatz 0094136
Schmitz, H. & Schmidt-Denter, U. (1997). Methodische Vorgehensweisen in Gruppeninterventionen für Kinder aus Trennungs- und Scheidungsfamilien - ein Literaturüberblick. In G. Lehmkuhl & U. Lehmkuhl (Hrsg.), Scheidung - Trennung - Kindeswohl (S. 34-52). Weinheim: Deutscher Studien Verlag.Datensatz 0117353
Schmitz, H. & Schmidt-Denter, U. (1999). Die Nachscheidungsfamilie sechs Jahre nach der elterlichen Trennung. Zeitschrift für Familienforschung, 11 (3), 28-55.Datensatz 0139535


Utilized Test Methods

Utilized Test Methods
Ehlers, B., Ehlers, T. & Makus, H. (1978). Die Marburger Verhaltensliste (MVL). Ein Elternfragebogen zur Abklärung des Problemverhaltens und zur Kontrolle des Therapieverlaufs bei sechs- bis zwölfjährigen Kindern. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9000775
Flämig, J. & Wörner, U. (1977). Standardisierung einer deutschen Fassung des Family Relations Tests (FRT) an Kindern von 6 bis 11 Jahren. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und -psychiatrie, 26, 5-11 und 38-46.Datensatz 1007526
Mattejat, F. & Scholz, M. (1994). Das subjektive Familienbild (SFB). Leipzig-Marburger Familientest. Testmappe. Goettingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9002646
Schneewind, K.A., Beckmann, M. & Hecht-Jackl, A. (1985). Das Familiendiagnostische Testsystem (FDTS). Universität München, Institut für Psychologie.Datensatz 9000966
Wagner, H. (1981). Hamburger Verhaltensbeurteilungsliste (HAVEL). Goettingen: Hogrefe.Datensatz 9000716


Further Reading

Further Reading
Allison, P.D. & Furstenberg, F.F. (1989). How marital dissolution affects children: Variations by age and sex. Developmental Psychology, 25, 540-549.
Copeland, A.P. (1986). An early look at divorce: Mother-child-interactions in the first post-separation year. Journal of Divorce, 8 (2), 17-30.
Fthenakis, W.E., Niesel, R. & Kunze, H.R. (1982). Ehescheidung. Konsequenzen für Eltern und Kinder. München: Urban & Schwarzenberg.Datensatz 2005529
Hetherington, E.M. (1988). Parents, children, and siblings: Six years after divorce. In R.A. Hinde & J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds.), Relationships within families. Mutual influences (pp. 311-331). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hetherington, E.M. (1989). Coping with family transitions: Winners, losers, and survivors. Child Development, 60, 1-14.
Hetherington, E.M., Cox, M. & Cox, R. (1982). Effects of divorce on parents and children. In M.E. Lamb (Ed.), Nontraditional families: Parenting and child development (pp. 233-288). New York: Erlbaum.
Johnston, J.R. & Campbell, L.E.G. (1988). Impasses of divorce: The dynamics and resolution of family conflict. New York: Free Press.
Longfellow, C. (1979). Divorce in context: Its impact on children. In G. Levinger & O.C. Moles (Eds.): Divorce and separation. Context, causes and consequences (pp. 286-306). New York: Basic Books.
Napp-Peters, A. (1985). Ein-Elternteil-Familien. Soziale Randgruppe oder neues familiales Selbstverständnis? Weinheim: Juventa.Datensatz 0014648
Neubauer, E. (1988). Alleinerziehende Mütter und Väter. Eine Analyse der Gesamtsituation. Schriftenreihe des Bundesministers für Jugend, Familie, Frauen und Gesundheit, Bd. 219. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
Pett, M.G. & Vaughan-Cole, B. (1986). The impact of income issues and social status on post-divorce adjustment of custodial parents. Family Relations, 35, 103-111.
Schleiffer, R. (1988). Elternverluste. Berlin: Springer.Datensatz 0034947
Schmidt-Denter, U. (1984). Die soziale Umwelt des Kindes. Eine ökopsychologische Analyse. Berlin: Springer.Datensatz 0007357
Schmidt-Denter, U. (1995). Soziale Entwicklung (3. Aufl.). Weinheim: Psychologie Verlags Union.
Wallerstein, J.S. & Blakeslee, S. (1989). Gewinner und Verlierer. Frauen, Männer, Kinder nach der Scheidung. München: Droemer Knaur.Datensatz 0044700
Wallerstein, J.S. & Kelly, J.B. (1980). Surviving the breakup. How children and parents cope with divorce. New York: Basic Books.
Werner, E.E. (1985). Stress and protective factors in children`s lives. In A.R. Nicol (Ed.), Longitudinal studies in child psychology and psychiatry (pp. 335-355). New York: Wiley.


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