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A mass-density model can account for the size-weight illusion. Research data of three experiments.

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Researchers

Name
Wolf, Christian
Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.
Drewing, Knut

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Dataset Information

Title A mass-density model can account for the size-weight illusion. Research data of three experiments.
Original Title Ein Masse-Dichte Modell kann die Gren-Gewichtstuschung erklren. Forschungsdaten von drei Experimenten.
Citation Wolf, C., Bergmann Tiest, W.M., & Drewing, K. (2018). A mass-density model can account for the size-weight illusion. Research data of three experiments. [Translated Title] (Version 1) [Files on CD-ROM]. Trier: Center for Research Data in Psychology: PsychData of the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID. https://doi.org/10.5160/psychdata.wfcn13ma18
Language of variable documentation German
Responsible for Data Collection Wolf, Christian; Drewing, Knut
Data Collection Completion Date 2013
Dataset Publication 2018
Dataset ID wfcn13ma18
Study Description When judging the heaviness of two objects with equal mass, people perceive the smaller and denser of the two as being heavier. Despite the high number of theories, covering bottom-up and top-down approaches, none of them can fully account for all aspects of this size-weight illusion and thus for human heaviness perception. Here we propose a new Bayesian-type model which describes the illusion as the weighted average of two heaviness estimates: One estimate derived from the objects mass, and the other from the objects density, with the weights based on the estimates relative reliabilities. In two magnitude estimation experiments, we tested model predictions for the visual and the haptic size-weight illusion. Participants lifted objects which varied in mass and density. We additionally varied the reliability of the density estimate by varying the quality of either visual (Experiment 1) or haptic (Experiment 2) volume information. Like predicted, with increasing quality of volume information, heaviness judgments were increasingly biased towards the objects density: Objects of the same density were perceived as more similar and big objects were perceived as increasingly lighter than small (denser) objects of the same mass. This perceived difference increased with an increasing difference in density. In a further two-alternative forced choice heaviness experiments, we replicated that the illusion strength increases with the quality of volume information (Experiment 3). Overall, the results highly corroborate our model, which seems promising as unifying framework for the size-weight illusion and human heaviness perception.
Hypotheses Heaviness perception can be described as a weighted average of a heaviness estimate derived from mass and a heaviness estimate derived from density. The contribution of each estimate depends on its relative reliability.
Keyphrase size-weight illusion & heaviness perception & visual perception & haptic perception, three experiments, 15 & 20 & 10 participants, research data.
Funding German Research Foundation (SFB/TRR 135)
Rating -

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PSYNDEX Classification and Controlled Terms

Classification Sensory Perception
Controlled Terms Weight Perception
Perceptual Motor Processes
Size Discrimination
Visual Perception
Tactual Perception
Data Collection

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Research Method Description

Research Method Description Experiment Data
Classification of Data Collection Experimental Design, Laboratory Experiment
Research Instrument Participants lifted objects with different mass, size and density. Heaviness was either judged in a free magnitude estimation task (Experiment 1 and 2) or using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task (Experiment 3). More detailed information can be found in Wolf et al. (2018).
Data Collection Method Data collection in the presence of an experimenter
- Individual Administration
Time Points repeated measurements
Survey Time Period Due to the length of Experiment 2 and 3, they have been split up into several recording sessions.
Characteristics -
Population Healthy adults
Experimental Pool Individuals
Sample Convenience sample
Subject Recruitment Participants were psychology students from Giessen University and received course credit in return.
Sample Size Experiment 1: 15 individuals; Experiment 2: 20 individuals; Experiment 3: 10 individuals
Return/Drop Out -
Gender Distribution Experiment 1:
20% female subjects (n=3)
80% male subjects (n=12)

Experiment 2:
50% female subjects (n=10)
50% male subjects (n=10)

Experiment 3:
50% female subjects (n=5)
50% male subjects (n=5)
Age Distribution 19-44 years
Special Groups -
Country Germany
Region -
City Giessen
Variables Experiment 1:
participant number, visibility condition, block number, density set of the stimulus, stimulus identifier, mass of lifted stimulus, volume of lifted stimulus, density of lifted stimulus, magnitude estimate: estimated heaviness of the stimulus

Experiment 2 (1):
participant number, grip type condition, block number, density set of the stimulus, stimulus identifier, mass of lifted stimulus, volume of lifted stimulus, density of lifted stimulus, magnitude estimate: estimated heaviness of the stimulus
Experiment 2 (2):
participant number, experimental number, grip type condition, block number, density set of the stimulus, comparison identifier, volume of comparison stimulus, presentation order of standard stimulus, two-alternative forced choice response

Experiment 3
participant number, experimental number, grip type condition, block number, density set of the stimulus, block number, comparison identifier, mass of comparison stimulus, presentation order of standard stimulus, two-alternative forced choice response

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Data Status

Data Status Complete Data Set
Original Records Participants response was noted down by the experimenter.
Transformation Data from the subjects were coded and then immediately transferred into a machine-readable form.

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Description of the Provided Data

Description Research data file from experiment 1
File Name wfcn13ma18_fd1.txt
Data Content 4680 cases, 9 variables
Data Points 4680*9 = 42120 data points
Variables Participant number (1), visibility condition (1), Block number (repetition) (1), Density set the lifted object belongs to (1), Stimulus identifier; Number identifying each stimulus (1), Mass of lifted stimulus (1), Volume of the lifted object in cm3 (1), Density of the lifted object in g/cm3 (1), Magnitude Estimate; Estimated heaviness of the lifted object (1)
MD5 Hash 87dd777babd4037900403b167a18faf7
  
Description Research data file of experiment 2 (1)
File Name wfcn13ma18_fd2_1.txt
Data Content 3600 cases, 9 variables
Data Points 3600*9 = 32400 Datenpunkte
Variables Participant number (1), Grip typ consition (1), Block number (repetition) (1), Density set the lifted object belongs to (1), Stimulus identifier; Number identifying each stimulus (1), Mass of lifted stimulus (1), Volume of the lifted object in cm3 (1), Density of the lifted object in g/cm3 (1), Magnitude Estimate; Estimated heaviness of the lifted object (1)
MD5 Hash 8c0e0df22b7e275d16ab7a0d16b97c99
  
Description Research data file of experiment 2 (2)
File Name wfcn13ma18_fd2_2.txt
Data Content 6400 cases, 9 variables
Data Points 6400*9 = 57600 data points
Variables Participant number (1), Experimental number (1), Grip typ consition (1), Density set the lifted object belongs to (1), Block number (repetition) (1), Comparison identifier; Number identifying each comparison stimulus (1), Volume of the lifted object in cm3 (1), Position of the standard stimulus (1), Participants' response (2-alternative forced choice / 2AFC) (1)
MD5 Hash 87eab812124420cd07cc3929195e1277
  
Description Research data file of experiment 3
File Name wfcn13ma18_fd3.txt
Data Content 4600 cases, 9 variables
Data Points 4600*9 = 41400 data points
Variables Participant number (1), Experimental number (1), Grip typ consition (1), Density set the lifted object belongs to (1), Block number (repetition) (1), Comparison identifier; Number identifying each comparison stimulus (1), Mass of the comparison stimulus in g (1), Position of the standard stimulus (1)
MD5 Hash 0ec2a84e3911f86a1c5ff2e0f5164fcf
  

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Description of Additional Materials

Description File Name
Codebook of the research data file wfcn13ma18_fd1.txt wfcn13ma18_kb1.txt
Codebook of the research data file wfcn13ma18_fd2_1.txt wfcn13ma18_kb2_1.txt
Codebook of the research data file wfcn13ma18_fd2_2.txt wfcn13ma18_kb2_2.txt
Codebook of the research data file wfcn13ma18_fd3.txt wfcn13ma18_kb3.txt

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Publications Directly Related to the Dataset

Publications Directly Related to the Dataset
Wolf. C., Bergmann Tiest, W.M., & Drewing K. (2018). A mass-density model can account for the size-weight illusion. Manuscript accepted for publication in PLOS One.

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